Kruk ME, Gage AD, Arsenault C, Jordan K, Leslie HH, Roder-DeWan S, et al. High-quality health systems in the Sustainable Development Goals era: time for a revolution. Lancet Glob Health. 2018;6(11):E1196–E252.
Kilo CM. A framework for collaborative improvement: lessons from the Institute for Healthcare Improvement's Breakthrough Series. Qual Manag Health Care. 1998;6(4):1–13.
Langley GJ, Moen R, Nolan KM, Nolan TW, Norman CL, Provost LP. The improvement guide: a practical approach to enhancing organizational performance: Wiley; 2009.
Wilson T, Berwick DM, Cleary PD. What do collaborative improvement projects do? Experience from seven countries. Jt Comm J Qual Saf. 2003;29(2):85–93.
Schouten LMT, Hulscher MEJL, van Everdingen JJE, Huijsman R, Grol RPTM. Evidence for the impact of quality improvement collaboratives: systematic review. BMJ. 2008;336(7659):1491.
Rowe AK, Rowe SY, Peters DH, Holloway KA, Chalker J, Ross-Degnan D. Effectiveness of strategies to improve health-care provider practices in low-income and middle-income countries: a systematic review. Lancet Glob Health. 2018;6(11):E1163–E75.
Wells S, Tamir O, Gray J, Naidoo D, Bekhit M, Goldmann D. Are quality improvement collaboratives effective? A systematic review. BMJ Qual Saf. 2018;27(3):226–40.
Øvretveit J, Bate P, Cleary P, Cretin S, Gustafson D, McInnes K, et al. Quality collaboratives: lessons from research. Qual Saf Health Care. 2002;11(4):345–51.
Shojania KG, Grimshaw JM. Evidence-based quality improvement: the state of the science. Health Aff. 2005;24(1):138–50.
Mittman BS. Creating the evidence base for quality improvement collaboratives. Ann Intern Med. 2004;140(11):897–901.
Garcia-Elorrio E, Rowe SY, Teijeiro ME, Ciapponi A, Rowe AK. The effectiveness of the quality improvement collaborative strategy in low- and middle-income countries: a systematic review and meta-analysis. PLoS One. 2019;14(10):e0221919.
Franco LM, Marquez L. Effectiveness of collaborative improvement: evidence from 27 applications in 12 less-developed and middle-income countries. BMJ Qual Saf. 2011;20(8):658–65.
Schulz KF, Chalmers I, Hayes RJ, Altman DG. Empirical evidence of bias. Dimensions of methodological quality associated with estimates of treatment effects in controlled trials. JAMA. 1995;273(5):408–12.
Peden CJ, Stephens T, Martin G, Kahan BC, Thomson A, Rivett K, et al. Effectiveness of a national quality improvement programme to improve survival after emergency abdominal surgery (EPOCH): a stepped-wedge cluster-randomised trial. Lancet. 2019.
Dixon-Woods MaM GP. Does quality improvement improve quality? Future Hosp J. 2016;3(3):191–4.
Hulscher MEJL, Schouten LMT, Grol RPTM, Buchan H. Determinants of success of quality improvement collaboratives: what does the literature show? BMJ Qual Saf. 2013;22(1):19–31.
Dixon-Woods M, Bosk CL, Aveling EL, Goeschel CA, Pronovost PJ. Explaining Michigan: developing an ex post theory of a quality improvement program. Milbank Q. 2011;89(2):167–205.
Pawson R, Greenhalgh T, Harvey G, Walshe K. Realist review--a new method of systematic review designed for complex policy interventions. J Health Serv Res Policy. 2005;10(Suppl 1):21–34.
Rycroft-Malone J, McCormack B, Hutchinson AM, DeCorby K, Bucknall TK, Kent B, et al. Realist synthesis: illustrating the method for implementation research. Implement Sci. 2012;7(1):33.
Pawson R, Tilley N. Realistic evaluation. London: Sage; 1997.
De Silva MJ, Breuer E, Lee L, Asher L, Chowdhary N, Lund C, et al. Theory of Change: a theory-driven approach to enhance the Medical Research Council’s framework for complex interventions. Trials. 2014;15.
Blamey A, Mackenzie M. Theories of Change and Realistic Evaluation. Evaluation. 2016;13(4):439–55.
Breuer E, Lee L, De Silva M, Lund C. Using theory of change to design and evaluate public health interventions: a systematic review. Implement Sci. 2016;11.
Moore GF, Audrey S, Barker M, Bond L, Bonell C, Hardeman W, et al. Process evaluation of complex interventions: Medical Research Council guidance. BMJ. 2015;350.
de Silva D. Improvement collaboratives in health care. Evidence scan July 2014. London: The Health Foundation; 2014. Available from: http://www.health.org.uk/publication/improvement-collaboratives-health-care.
Kringos DS, Sunol R, Wagner C, Mannion R, Michel P, Klazinga NS, et al. The influence of context on the effectiveness of hospital quality improvement strategies: a review of systematic reviews. BMC Health Serv Res. 2015;15:277.
Kaplan HC, Provost LP, Froehle CM, Margolis PA. The Model for Understanding Success in Quality (MUSIQ): building a theory of context in healthcare quality improvement. BMJ Qual Saf. 2012;21(1):13–20.
Reed J, Ramaswamy R, Parry G, Sax S, Kaplan H. Context matters: adapting the Model for Understanding Success in Quality Improvement (MUSIQ) for low and middle income countries. Implement Sci. 2017;12((Suppl 1)(48)):23.
Reed JE, Kaplan HC, Ismail SA. A new typology for understanding context: qualitative exploration of the model for understanding success in quality (MUSIQ). BMC Health Serv Res. 2018;18.
Astbury B, Leeuw FL. Unpacking black boxes: mechanisms and theory building in evaluation. Am J Eval. 2010;31(3):363–81.
Dalkin SM, Greenhalgh J, Jones D, Cunningham B, Lhussier M. What's in a mechanism? Development of a key concept in realist evaluation. Implement Sci. 2015;10.
May C, Finch T. Implementing, embedding, and integrating practices: an outline of normalisation process theory. Sociology. 2009;43.
Greenhalgh T, Robert G, Macfarlane F, Bate P, Kyriakidou O. Diffusion of innovations in service organizations: systematic review and recommendations. Milbank Q. 2004;82(4):581–629.
von Elm E, Altman DG, Egger M, Pocock SJ, Gotzsche PC, Vandenbroucke JP. The Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (STROBE) statement: guidelines for reporting observational studies. Lancet. 2007;370(9596):1453–7.
Critical appraisal skills programme. CASP Qualitative Checklist 2007 [8th January 2019]. Available from: https://casp-uk.net/wp-content/uploads/2018/01/CASP-Qualitative-Checklist-2018.pdf.
Hong QN PP, Fàbregues S, Bartlett G, Boardman F, Cargo M, Dagenais P, Gagnon, M-P GF, Nicolau B, O’Cathain A, Rousseau M-C, Vedel I. Mixed Methods Appraisal Tool (MMAT), version 2018. Registration of Copyright (#1148552), Canadian Intellectual Property Office, Industry Canada 2018 [8th January 2019]. Available from: http://mixedmethodsappraisaltoolpublic.pbworks.com/w/file/fetch/127916259/MMAT_2018_criteria-manual_2018-08-01_ENG.pdf.
Hong QN, Gonzalez-Reyes A, Pluye P. Improving the usefulness of a tool for appraising the quality of qualitative, quantitative and mixed methods studies, the Mixed Methods Appraisal Tool (MMAT). J Eval Clin Pract. 2018;24(3):459–67.
Hannes K. Chapter 4: Critical appraisal of qualitative research. In: NJ BA, Hannes K, Harden A, Harris J, Lewin S, Lockwood C, editors. Supplementary Guidance for Inclusion of Qualitative Research in Cochrane Systematic Reviews of Interventions Version 1 (updated August 2011): Cochrane Collaboration Qualitative Methods Group; 2011.
Liberati A, Altman DG, Tetzlaff J, Mulrow C, Gotzsche PC, Ioannidis JP, et al. The PRISMA statement for reporting systematic reviews and meta-analyses of studies that evaluate health care interventions: explanation and elaboration. PLoS Med. 2009;6(7):e1000100.
Wong G, Greenhalgh T, Westhorp G, Buckingham J, Pawson R. RAMESES publication standards: realist syntheses. BMC Med. 2013;11(1):21.
Pawson R. Digging for nuggets: how ‘bad’ research can yield ‘good’ evidence. Int J Soc Res Methodol. 2006;9(2):127–42.
Benn J, Burnett S, Parand A, Pinto A, Vincent C. Factors predicting change in hospital safety climate and capability in a multi-site patient safety collaborative: a longitudinal survey study. BMJ Qual Saf. 2012;21(7):559–68.
Linnander E, McNatt Z, Sipsma H, Tatek D, Abebe Y, Endeshaw A, et al. Use of a national collaborative to improve hospital quality in a low-income setting. Int Health. 2016;8(2):148–53.
McInnes DK, Landon BE, Wilson IB, Hirschhorn LR, Marsden PV, Malitz F, et al. The impact of a quality improvement program on systems, processes, and structures in medical clinics. Med Care. 2007;45(5):463–71.
Burnett S, Benn J, Pinto A, Parand A, Iskander S, Vincent C. Organisational readiness: exploring the preconditions for success in organisation-wide patient safety improvement programmes. Qual Saf Health Care. 2010;19(4):313–7.
Colbourn TNB, Costello A. MaiKhanda - Final evaluation report. The impact of quality improvement at health facilities and community mobilisation by women’s groups on birth outcomes: an effectiveness study in three districts of Malawi. London: Health Foundation; 2013.
Amarasingham R, Pronovost PJ, Diener-West M, Goeschel C, Dorman T, Thiemann DR, et al. Measuring clinical information technology in the ICU setting: application in a quality improvement collaborative. J Am Med Inform Assoc. 2007;14(3):288–94.
Sodzi-Tettey ST-DN, Mobisson-Etuk N, Macy LH, Roessner J, Barker PM. Lessons learned from Ghana’s Project Fives Alive! A practical guide for designing and executing large-scale improvement initiatives. Cambridge: Institute for Healthcare Improvement; 2015.
Duckers ML, Spreeuwenberg P, Wagner C, Groenewegen PP. Exploring the black box of quality improvement collaboratives: modelling relations between conditions, applied changes and outcomes. Implement Sci. 2009;4:74.
Catsambas TT, Franco LM, Gutmann M, Knebel E, Hill P, Lin Y-S. Evaluating health care collaboratives: the experience of the quality assurance project. Bethesda: USAID Health Care Improvement Project; 2008.
Marquez L, Holschneider S, Broughton E, Hiltebeitel S. Improving health care: the results and legacy of the USAID Health Care Improvement Project. Bethesda: University Research Co., LLC (URC). USAID Health Care Improvement Project; 2014.
Schouten LM, Hulscher ME, Akkermans R, van Everdingen JJ, Grol RP, Huijsman R. Factors that influence the stroke care team’s effectiveness in reducing the length of hospital stay. Stroke. 2008;39(9):2515–21.
Mills PD, Weeks WB. Characteristics of successful quality improvement teams: lessons from five collaborative projects in the VHA. Jt Comm J Qual Saf. 2004;30(3):152–62.
Carlhed R, Bojestig M, Wallentin L, Lindstrom G, Peterson A, Aberg C, et al. Improved adherence to Swedish national guidelines for acute myocardial infarction: the Quality Improvement in Coronary Care (QUICC) study. Am Heart J. 2006;152(6):1175–81.
Duckers MLA, Stegeman I, Spreeuwenberg P, Wagner C, Sanders K, Groenewegen PP. Consensus on the leadership of hospital CEOs and its impact on the participation of physicians in improvement projects. Health Policy. 2009;91(3):306–13.
Horbar JD, Plsek PE, Leahy K. Nic/Q. NIC/Q 2000: establishing habits for improvement in neonatal intensive care units. Pediatrics. 2003;111(4 Pt 2):e397–410.
Baker U, Petro A, Marchant T, Peterson S, Manzi F, Bergstrom A, et al. Health workers’ experiences of collaborative quality improvement for maternal and newborn care in rural Tanzanian health facilities: a process evaluation using the integrated 'promoting action on research implementation in health services’ framework. PLoS One. 2018;13:12.
Osibo B, Oronsaye F, Alo OD, Phillips A, Becquet R, Shaffer N, et al. Using small tests of change to improve PMTCT services in northern Nigeria: experiences from implementation of a continuous quality improvement and breakthrough series program. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2017;75(Suppl 2):S165–s72.
Pinto A, Benn J, Burnett S, Parand A, Vincent C. Predictors of the perceived impact of a patient safety collaborative: an exploratory study. Int J Qual Health Care. 2011;23(2):173–81.
Benn J, Burnett S, Parand A, Pinto A, Iskander S, Vincent C. Perceptions of the impact of a large-scale collaborative improvement programme: experience in the UK Safer Patients Initiative. J Eval Clin Pract. 2009;15(3):524–40.
Rahimzai M, Naeem AJ, Holschneider S, Hekmati AK. Engaging frontline health providers in improving the quality of health care using facility-based improvement collaboratives in Afghanistan: case study. Confl Heal. 2014;8:21.
Stone S, Lee HC, Sharek PJ. Perceived factors associated with sustained improvement following participation in a multicenter quality improvement collaborative. Jt Comm J Qual Patient Saf. 2016;42(7):309–15.
Feldman-Winter L, Ustianov J. Lessons learned from hospital leaders who participated in a national effort to improve maternity care practices and breastfeeding. Breastfeed Med. 2016;11(4):166–72.
Ament SM, Gillissen F, Moser A, Maessen JM, Dirksen CD, von Meyenfeldt MF, et al. Identification of promising strategies to sustain improvements in hospital practice: a qualitative case study. BMC Health Serv Res. 2014;14:641.
Duckers ML, Wagner C, Vos L, Groenewegen PP. Understanding organisational development, sustainability, and diffusion of innovations within hospitals participating in a multilevel quality collaborative. Implement Sci. 2011;6:18.
Parand A, Benn J, Burnett S, Pinto A, Vincent C. Strategies for sustaining a quality improvement collaborative and its patient safety gains. Int J Qual Health Care. 2012;24(4):380–90.
Jaribu J, Penfold S, Manzi F, Schellenberg J, Pfeiffer C. Improving institutional childbirth services in rural Southern Tanzania: a qualitative study of healthcare workers’ perspective. BMJ Open. 2016;6:9.
Nembhard IM. Learning and improving in quality improvement collaboratives: which collaborative features do participants value most? Health Serv Res. 2009;44(2 Pt 1):359–78.
Carter P, Ozieranski P, McNicol S, Power M, Dixon-Woods M. How collaborative are quality improvement collaboratives: a qualitative study in stroke care. Implement Sci. 2014;9(1):32.
Nembhard IM. All teach, all learn, all improve?: the role of interorganizational learning in quality improvement collaboratives. Health Care Manag Rev. 2012;37(2):154–64.
Duckers ML, Groenewegen PP, Wagner C. Quality improvement collaboratives and the wisdom of crowds: spread explained by perceived success at group level. Implement Sci. 2014;9:91.
Dainty KN, Scales DC, Sinuff T, Zwarenstein M. Competition in collaborative clothing: a qualitative case study of influences on collaborative quality improvement in the ICU. BMJ Qual Saf. 2013;22(4):317–23.
Michie S, Johnston M, Abraham C, Lawton R, Parker D, Walker A, et al. Making psychological theory useful for implementing evidence based practice: a consensus approach. Qual Saf Health Care. 2005;14(1):26–33.
Cane J, O’Connor D, Michie S. Validation of the theoretical domains framework for use in behaviour change and implementation research. Implement Sci. 2012;7.
Atkins L, Francis J, Islam R, O'Connor D, Patey A, Ivers N, et al. A guide to using the Theoretical Domains Framework of behaviour change to investigate implementation problems. Implement Sci. 2017;12.
Herzer KR, Pronovost PJ. Physician motivation: listening to what pay-for-performance programs and quality improvement collaboratives are telling us. Jt Comm J Qual Patient Saf. 2015;41(11):522–8.
Herzberg F. One more time - how do you motivate employees. Harv Bus Rev. 1987;65(5):109–20.
Nickelsen NCM. Five Currents of Organizational Psychology-from Group Norms to Enforced Change. Nord J Work Life Stud. 2017;7(1):87–106.
Dixon-Woods M. The problem of context in quality improvement. In: Health Foundation, editor. Perspectives on context. London: Health Foundation; 2014. p. 87–101.
Senge P. Building learning organizations. In: Pugh DS, editor. Organization Theory - Selected Classic Readings. 5th ed. London: Penguin; 2007. p. 486–514.
Waiswa P, Manzi F, Mbaruku G, Rowe AK, Marx M, Tomson G, et al. Effects of the EQUIP quasi-experimental study testing a collaborative quality improvement approach for maternal and newborn health care in Tanzania and Uganda. Implement Sci. 2017;12(1):89.
Rowe AK, Labadie G, Jackson D, Vivas-Torrealba C, Simon J. Improving health worker performance: an ongoing challenge for meeting the sustainable development goals. BMJ Br Med J. 2018;362.
Colbourn T, Nambiar B, Bondo A, Makwenda C, Tsetekani E, Makonda-Ridley A, et al. Effects of quality improvement in health facilities and community mobilization through women's groups on maternal, neonatal and perinatal mortality in three districts of Malawi: MaiKhanda, a cluster randomized controlled effectiveness trial. Int Health. 2013:iht011.
Bonell C, Warren E, Fletcher A, Viner R. Realist trials and the testing of context-mechanism-outcome configurations: a response to Van Belle et al. Trials. 2016;17(1):478.
Hanson C, Zamboni K, Prabhakar V, Sudke A, Shukla R, Tyagi M, et al. Evaluation of the Safe Care, Saving Lives (SCSL) quality improvement collaborative for neonatal health in Telangana and Andhra Pradesh, India: a study protocol. Glob Health Action. 2019;12(1):1581466.
Moore GF, Evans RE, Hawkins J, Littlecott H, Melendez-Torres GJ, Bonell C, et al. From complex social interventions to interventions in complex social systems: future directions and unresolved questions for intervention development and evaluation. Evaluation (Lond). 2019;25(1):23–45.
Moore GF, Evans RE. What theory, for whom and in which context? Reflections on the application of theory in the development and evaluation of complex population health interventions. SSM Popul Health. 2017;3:132–5.
Shaw J, Gray CS, Baker GR, Denis JL, Breton M, Gutberg J, et al. Mechanisms, contexts and points of contention: operationalizing realist-informed research for complex health interventions. BMC Med Res Methodol. 2018;18(1):178.