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Table 1 Implementation interventions and approaches used in each study

From: Implementation of safety checklists in surgery: a realist synthesis of evidence

Implementation Number of studies (n = 35) Reported in
Types of interventions n a %  
 Opinion leaders 5 14.3 Bittle [62], Bohmer et al. [33], Conley et al. [60], Styer et al. [43], Yuan et al. [44]
 Modelling 4 11.4 Bohmer et al. [33], Conley et al. [60], Haugen et al. [36], Norton and Rangel [45]
 Widespread communication 10 28.6 Bashford et al. [31], Bell and Pontin [57], Berrisford et al. [58], Haugen et al. [36], Haynes et al. [37], Kearns et al. [50], Levy et al. [40], Norton and Rangel [45], Stryer et al. [43], van Klei et al. [61]
 Educational sessions 16 45.7 Askarian et al. [30], Bashford et al. [31], Bliss et al. [32], Bohmer et al. [33], de Vries et al. [34], Gillespie et al. [35], Haugen et al. [36], Haynes et al. [37], Helmio et al. [38], Kwok et al. [39], Levy et al. [40], Anonymous [41], Sparkes and Rylah [42], Styer et al. [43], Kasatpibal et al. [18], Yuan et al. [44]
 Self-assessment 1 2.8 Bashford et al. [31]
 Clinical training 11 31.4 Bashford et al. [31], Berrisford et al. [58], Bittle [62], Calland et al. [47], Haugen et al. [36], Haynes et al. [37], Kwok et al. [39], Norton and Rangel [45], Sewell et al. [53], Vats et al. [54], Yuan et al. [44]
 Audit and feedback 7 20.0 Bashford et al. [31], Berrisford et al. [58], Bittle [62], Bliss et al. [32], Haugen et al. [36], Truran et al. [51], van Klei et al. [37]
 Environmental redesign 1 2.8 Mainthia et al. [46]
 Rewards/incentives 0 0 -
 Coercion 0 0 -
 Restrictions/sanctions 0 0 -
 Performance data 8 22.8 Askarian et al. [30], Berrisford et al. [58], Bliss et al. [32], de Vries et al. [34], Haynes et al. [37], Kwok et al. [39], Sewell et al. [53], Yuan et al. [44]
Approach    
 Planned 16 45.7 Askarian et al. [30], Bashford et al. [31], Bell and Pontin [57], Berrisford et al. [58], Bittle [62], Bliss et al. [32], Conley et al. [60], Haugen et al. [36], Haynes et al. [37], Helmio et al. [38], Kwok et al. [39], Norton and Rangel [45], Anonymous [41], Stryer et al. [43], van Klei et al. [61], Yuan et al. [44]
 Limited/none 15 42.8 Bohmer et al. [33], Calland et al. [47], Gillespie et al. [35], Levy et al. [40], Mainthia et al. [46], Pérez-Guisado [48], Sparks and Rylah [42], Takala et al. [49], Kearns et al. [50], Sewell et al. [53], Rydenfalt et al. [52], Truran et al. [51], Vats et al. [54], Vogts et al. [55], Kasatpibal et al. [18]
 Evidence of tailoring 2 5.7 Foucade et al. [63], Russ et al. [64]
  1. aNot all studies reported implementation strategies used