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Table 3 Social marketing approach to effecting behavior change in Veterans Health Administration market segments.

From: A social marketing approach to implementing evidence-based practice in VHA QUERI: the TIDES depression collaborative care model

Stage of behavior change Social marketing objectives Sample messages
Knowledge: "I know I should" Provide target audience with knowledge about the desired course of action:  
  • Manager: Support the new depression care program; • Manager; "I know I should support this program."
  • Provider: Utilize the program; and • Provider: "I know I should refer my depressed patients to this program."
  • Veteran: Seek treatment for depression. • Veteran: "I know I should get treated if I'm depressed."
Desire: "I want to" Create desire by presenting image of benefits of new behavior:  
  • Manager: Better patient outcomes and potential for additional funding; • Manager: "I want to enhance my facility's reputation and obtain additional funding."
  • Provider: Increased patient compliance with depression treatment; and • Provider: "I want my patients to have improved mood."
  • Veteran: What life could look like after depression is treated. • Veteran: "I want to enjoy my life more fully."
Skills and resources: "I can" Provide skill set, tools, and resources to enable implementation of desired course of action:  
  • Manager: Resources to implement the depression care program; • Manager; "I know how to implement this program."
  • Provider: Tools and staff support to utilize the program; and • Provider: "I know how to refer my patients to this program."
  • Veteran: Facilitated access to the program. • Veteran: "I know how to get treatment if I'm depressed."
Optimism:"It's worthwhile" Demonstrate real or potential outcomes related to desired course of action:  
  • Manager: Depression care program improves outcomes for a reasonable cost; • Manager: "The program's quality or financial benefits are worth the cost."
  • Provider: Patients have improved mood and are healthier; and • Provider: "My depressed patients are getting better."
  • Veteran: Quality of life improves. • Veteran: "I feel better."
Facilitation: "It's easy" Demonstrate the desired behavior is feasible  
  • All segments: Enhance self-efficacy for implementing, utilizing, or accessing the program (e.g. through social modeling); and testimonials from similar others about their positive experiences. • All segments: "I am like you, and this depression care program works for me. It can work for you."
Stimulation: "I'm joining in" Use stimuli to create action, i.e., adopt new behavior:  
  • Manager: Primary care clinics are beginning to refer patients to the program; • Manager: "We're seeing benefits from this program."
  • Provider: Patients begin to comply with depression treatment; and • Provider: "I'm learning how to utilize the program."
  • Veteran: Small steps toward improved mood. • Veteran: "I haven't felt really down in a week."
Reinforcement: Show that positive outcome will help individuals form new personal habits  
  • All segments: Personal mastery experiences accumulate; and feedback from managers, providers, and veterans regarding their progress. • Manager: "We're making the depression care program work."
• Provider: "I routinely refer my depressed patients to this program."
• • Veteran: "I'm not letting depression control my life."