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Table 6 Dissemination outcome constructs, suggested definition, frequency of construct across frameworks, and other names in the literature

From: A scoping review of frameworks in empirical studies and a review of dissemination frameworks

Outcome construct Suggested definition Total frequency Other names in the literature
Awareness The user/audience being cognizant of the information or communication 8 Awareness
Reception The audience must give attention to reading the incoming message 2 Reception
Persuasion When an individual forms a favorable or unfavorable attitude towards the innovation 3 Persuasion
Emotion reactions Emotional state at the time of the message encounter and by feelings induced by the message 3 Affective reactions
Decision Choices to accept or reject an innovation that are made by an individual independent of the decisions of the other members of the system 5 Decision, rationale
Knowledge gained Knowledge gain when an individual or group of people learn about the innovation 3 Knowledge gained
Knowledge utilization Knowledge and skills to engage with the innovation 11 Knowledge utilization
Changes in policy Structural changes to facilitate the uptake of the innovation 8 Changes in policy, economics
Adoption The individual or organization engages in a number of activities that will lead to the research evidence being integrated into clinical practice and/or policy decisions 4 Adoption
Fidelity To what extent were the various intervention components delivered as intended (in the protocol) 1 Fidelity, adherence
Confirmation When an individual or an organization seeks reinforcement of an innovation decision that has already been made 2 Confirmation
Accountability Establishing clear responsibilities and expectations for stakeholders 3 Accountability
Impact When the uptake of the innovation has tangible benefits 5 Impact
Maintenance, long-term outcome The extent to which a program or policy becomes institutionalized or part of the routine organizational practices and policies 3 Maintenance
Cost Cost of the dissemination process 5 Cost