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Table 4 Dissemination determinants constructs, suggested definition, frequency of construct across frameworks, and other names in the literature

From: A scoping review of frameworks in empirical studies and a review of dissemination frameworks

Determinant constructs

Suggested definition

Total frequency

Other names in the literature

Source of knowledge

The individual or unit that delivers the information.


Type of source, originator of the message or knowledge, decision-makers, intervention agents, interventionists

Medium of communication

The means (form) by which the information is shared.


Type of communication channel, medium of communication, knowledge broker

Content of communication

The content of the message sharing the information.


Type of message content, format, information, innovation


Person or group receiving the information.


Type of user/audience/recipient/decision-maker

Type of innovation

The type or characteristics and value added of the innovation that is being communicated.


Type of innovation

Complexity of the innovation

The degree of complexity of an innovation being communicated.


Complexity of the innovation

Timing of information

The speed and distance of the spread of the information.


Timing of information spread

Urgency of the innovation

The urgency related to the innovation; how immediate is the need to disseminate the information about this innovation.


Urgency of the innovation

Triability of an innovation

The degree to which an innovation can be implemented on a limited basis.


Trialability of the innovation

Observability of the results

The degree to which the uptake of the innovation yields observable results.


Observability of the innovation’s results

Salience of the innovation

The relevance of the innovation to the audience.


Salience, evidence of need and demand, relative advantage of the innovation

Users’ perceived attitude towards the innovation

A more general concept than the salience of innovation, related to the audience’s perception of the process of innovation development (research) and the receptivity of the innovation.


Users’ attitude towards research and the innovation

Compatibility of the innovation with the setting

The degree to which an innovation is consistent with the context.


Compatibility of the innovation with the setting


Settings in which communications are received and potential adoption occurs.



Interpersonal networks

Large umbrella term that includes the relationship between the audience members, its structure, and its quality.


Influence, quality of relationships, interpersonal channels, trustworthiness, linkage mechanisms

Opinion leaders and change agents

Opinion leadership is the degree to which an individual is able to influence other individual’s attitudes. Change agent is an individual who influences a client’s innovation decisions in a certain direction and speed.


Champions, opinion leaders, and change agents


Necessary skills to engage and act on the innovation.


Necessary skills