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Table 2 Estimated costs associated with each participatory design approach

From: Comparing output from two methods of participatory design for developing implementation strategies: traditional contextual inquiry vs. rapid crowd sourcing

  Innovation tournament Observations/qualitative interviews
Activity Personnel time (hours) Cost ($) Activity Personnel time (hours)a Cost ($)
Preparation
  Generate innovation tournament prompt 10 200 Develop recruitment materials 12 240
  Set up “Your Big Idea” platform 10 200 Recruitment outreach (e.g., agency visits, travel costs, communication with potential participants) 32 720
  Recruitment outreach (e.g., phone calls, emails) 10 200 Obtain letters of support (includes travel to sites and car rental fee) 20 426
     Training in observation and interview procedures 20 400
Total time and cost for preparation 30 600   84 1786
Data collection
  Operating innovation tournament on the “Your Big Idea Platform” 12 14,594 Conduct observations (n = 7) 42 840
  Innovation tournament activities (notify winners, set up meetings, discuss ideas) 10 200 Conduct interviews (n = 17) 18 160
     Interview transcription 60 1200
Total time and cost for data collection 22 14,794   120 2200
Data synthesis
  Behavioral diagnostics data analysis 16 320 Develop and train on qualitative coding guide 21 420
     Code interviews 20 400
     Analyze barriers and generate implementation strategies 18 360
Total time and cost for data synthesis 16 320   59 1180
Total overall cost 68 15,714   263 5166
  1. aSome tasks involved more than one person; in these instances, personnel time was multiplied accordingly. Cost was calculated based on a rate of $20/hour/person across all activities to facilitate comparability across the two methods