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Table 1 Output from innovation tournament compared with observations/qualitative interviews

From: Comparing output from two methods of participatory design for developing implementation strategies: traditional contextual inquiry vs. rapid crowd sourcing

   Identified implementation strategies
Implementation strategy clustera Implementation strategyb Innovation tournament (n = 14 strategies) Observations/qualitative interviews (n = 26 strategies)
Adapt and tailor to context Promote adaptability None 1. Adapt data collection processes to make them easier to do within the chaotic school environmentd
2. Ensure that data required for tracking is of behaviors that can reasonably be tracked from a short distanced
Change infrastructure Change physical structure, equipment, and regulatory processes c 1. Integrate data collection processes into course of day
2. Adjust regulatory process to increase BHT feedback integration into treatment planning
1. Advocate for adapting the timing of treatment plan regulations to link to changes in behavior rather than calendar months
2. Provide supplies to ameliorate the strain caused by heavy laptops and notebooks (e.g., a small standing desk)
3. Reposition students, teachers, and BHTs in classroom to better facilitate intervention and data collection
Change record systems 1. Changes the forms or templates used to collect data
2. Digitize data collection to reduce effort
3. Make forms simple to use
4. Rely on drop down menus and tallies
1. Eliminate Wi-Fi dependency of electronic data record
2. Consult with software developers to address limitations of current data collection capture systems in the electronic health record
3. Eliminate redundancies in data collection processes by eliminating paper forms and conducting direct data entry into the required electronic health record
4. Redesign data capture software to allow for the flexibility required to capture the range of data for specific client
5. Utilize mobile electronic data tracking platform that builds in time clocks to facilitate monitoring across environments or supply all BHTs with watches
6. Ensure that mobile electronic data tracking platforms are light and easy to transport
Engage consumers   None None
Evaluative and iterative strategies Conduct local needs assessment None 1. Assess the strengths and limitations of current data collection systemd
  Audit and feedback 1. Give feedback to BHTs on treatment plansd None
Provide interactive assistance Provide clinical supervision 1. Offer in vivo coaching
2. Provide immediate feedback on data collection
1. Provide on-site coaching to BHTs on how to balance data with intervention in response to challenging behaviors
2. Enhance channels of communication between BHTs and supervisors
3. Increase the amount of supervisory support available to BHTs, particularly as it relates to direct observation in the field
4. Hold regular supervision meetings in which the BHT and supervisor troubleshoot around limitations of current data collection systemd
5. Hold regular supervision meetings in which the BHT discusses examples of competing demands and/or role-plays data collection during problem behaviors
Support clinicians Facilitate relay of clinical data to providers 1. Show the BHTs how their data is used with visuals 1. Enhance perceived utility of data collection (e.g., through feedback of client progress)
Remind clinicians None 1. Provide regular reminder mechanism for clinician, e.g., hourly text messaged
2. Include definitions of target behaviors for data collection on data record sheetd
Training and educate stakeholders Conduct educational meetings 1. Improve training
2. Provide skills training in functional analysis
3. Conduct best data collection practices training for active and outdoor times
4. Conduct training on best practices for data collection while clients display problem behaviors
5. Provide portable educational materials to remind BHTs on best practices for collecting data on client problem behaviors
6. Provide targeted skills training to BHTs on how to balance data collection with intervention in response to challenging behaviors
7. Provide targeted training for BHTs in defining behaviors for data collection
8. Train BHTs in data collection interface, including each feature’s function and use
Utilize incentive strategies Alter incentive/allowance structures 1. Acknowledge BHT for collecting datad
2. Increase rewards for data collectiond
  1. aClusters from Waltz and colleagues 2015
  2. bStrategies from Powell and colleagues 2015
  3. cThis domain was expanded from the traditional “Change Physical Structure and Equipment” to additionally encompass regulatory infrastructure
  4. dImplementation strategy content not reflected in output from the opposing method