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Table 1 Randomized 2 × 2 factorial design yielding 4 independent study arms

From: Behavioral economic implementation strategies to improve serious illness communication between clinicians and high-risk patients with cancer: protocol for a cluster randomized pragmatic trial

   Patient
   No nudge Nudge
Clinician Nudge Arm 1: Nudge to clinician only
Identification of high-risk patients + performance feedback with clinician peer comparison
Arm 3: Nudge to clinician and patient
Strategies from arms 1 and 2 in combination
No nudge Arm 4: Usual care (active control)
Identification of high-risk patients + performance feedback without clinician peer comparison
Arm 2: Nudge to patient only
Normalizing message + patient priming questionnaire