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Table 3 Characteristics of included participants and LTC homes

From: Barriers and facilitators to implementing evidence-based guidelines in long-term care: a qualitative evidence synthesis

   Individual participant characteristics LTC home characteristics
Study Year Profession Number Age
Mean (SD)
Sex
% female
Sampling technique Response rate n of homes n of residents in home Ownership Rurality
Phipps et al. [36] 2019 Partners from health protection, primary care, pharmacy, local authority, National Health Service NR NR NR NR NR NR NR NR NR
Abraham et al. [37] 2019 Nursing home leaders, nominated key nurses, randomly selected nursing staff, relatives, legal guardians, home advisory board NR NR NR NR NR 120 Varied NR NR
Villarosa et al. [38] 2018 Residential aged care staff 12 38 (15.5) 91.7% Purposeful NR 2 NR Rural Community-owned, not-for-profit
Huhtinen et al. [39] 2018 Registered nurses, director of nursing, facility manager, chief executive officer 28 NR NR Convenience 46% 28 Varied (41 to > 100 residents) Urban 61% non-profit, 39% privately owned
Nilsen et al. [40] 2018 Nursing home managers 22 54 (SD not reported) 100% Convenience 100% 22 Varied (32 to 110 staff) NR NR
DuBeau et al. [41] 2007 Nursing home staff (administrator, nursing director, nursing assistants, nurse practitioners, nursing consultants, medical staff) and surveyors 500 NR NR Convenience 85% NR 68.6% were < 100 residents 58% rural 50% for profit, 37% not for profit, 12% government run
Birney et al. [42] 2016 Registered nurses, licensed practical nurses, health care aides, pharmacists, and facility managers/directors, care manager, best practice lead 18 NR NR Purposeful NR 4 50–221 residents 75% urban 75% public
Fallon et al. [43] 2016 Facility staff and managers NR NR NR Convenience NR 2 40–71 resident Urban Publicly funded
Baert et al. [44] 2016 LTC home administrators Qual = 24
Quant = 127
Qual = males 49 (7), females 43 (11)
Quant = males 50 (7), females 44 (8)
Qual = 46%
Quant = 47%
Multistage stratified random Qual—not reported;
Quant—127/761
NR NR Urban and rural Public and private
Alamri et al. [45] 2015 Medical director, director of care, administrator, consultant pharmacist, food services director, and other medical, nursing, and rehabilitation representatives NR NR NR NR NR 12 Mean 114 (SD 57.0) residents Urban and rural 92% for profit
Kaasalainen et al. [46] 2014 Clinical nursing specialist and nursing practitioners 28 NR 82% Purposeful NR 2 110–130 residents NR 50% for profit
Vikstrom et al. [47] 2015 Nurse aides, registered nurses, physical and occupational therapists, managers 200 NR NR NR NR 1 200 residents Suburban NR
Strachan et al. [48] 2014 Registered nurses, registered practical nurses, nurse practitioners 33 NR NR Convenience NR 4 96–251 residents Both Public and private, profit and not for profit
Lim et al. [49] 2014 Registered nurses, general practitioners, pharmacists 61 Nurses—70.3% (> 40)
GPs—10% (> 40)
Pharmacists—66.7% (> 40)
78.7% Purposive and snowball NR 12 NR NR NR
Dellefield et al. [50] 2014 Registered nurses, licensed vocational nurses, nurses’ assistants 16 50 (SD not reported) 88% Purposeful stratified 64% 2 NR NR NR
Berta et al. [28] 2013 Directors of care 392 NR NR Purposeful 72% 392 33% large (> 150 residents) 76% urban 43% chain owned, 19% not for profit
Bamford et al. [51] 2012 Cooks, managers, care staff 43 NR NR Maximum variation purposeful NR 5 25–40 residents Small towns and villages Publicly funded
Kaasalainen et al. [52] 2012 Licensed nurses, personal support workers, administrator, directors of care, pharmacist, advanced practice nurse, physiotherapist NR NR NR NR NR 4 NR NR NR
Verkaik et al. [53] 2011 Certified nursing assistants 20 NR NR Purposeful 20/109 9 NR NR NR
Berta et al. [54] 2010 Senior clinical, administrator, direct care staff 28 NR NR Stratified purposeful NR 7 NR NR NR
McConigley et al. [55] 2008 Nurses, physiotherapists, occupational therapists, management staff, general practitioners 53 44 (8.5) 88% Unclear 65% 5 60-245 residents NR NR
Cheek et al. [56] 2004 Registered nurse, enrolled nurse, manager, direct care worker, pharmacist, general practitioner, physiotherapist, speech therapist 33 NR NR Purposeful NR 12 NR NR NR
Hilton et al. [57] 2016 Enrolled nurses 51 NR NR NR NR 1 NR NR NR
Lau et al. [58] 2007 physicians, registered nurses, nurses’ aides, pharmacists 17 NR NR Purposeful 100% 4 NR NR NR
Buss et al. [59] 2004 Enrolled nurses, team leaders, head nurses, staff nurses, and physicians 18 NR NR Purposeful 100% 5 NR NR NR
Van der Maaden et al. [60] 2017 Physicians 14 interviews, 25 survey Interviews: 47 years; survey: 21 years 71.4% interviews, 84% survey Purposeful NR 16 Mean 106 residents (range 30–189) NR NR
Kong et al. [61] 2020 Nurses, nursing assistants, care workers 24 40–69 years 100% Convenience 54.5% 6 Medium or large (61–296) Urban 4 private, 2 public
Jeong et al. [62] 2020 Managers, registered nurses, health assistants 10 NR 100% Convenience NR 2 NR NR NR
Eldh et al. [63] 2020 LTC staff NR NR NR NR NR 24 NR NR NR
Cossette et al. [64] 2019 Nurses, manager, staff 10 NR NR Purposive NR 5 NR NR NR
Surr et al. [65] 2020 Managers, mappers, other members of staff 67 NR NR Purposive NR 18 Mix of medium and large Mix of urban and rural NR
Desveaux et al. [66] 2019 Administrative leaders, physicians, pharmacists, and direct care providers 29 NR 75.9% Purposive NR 13 NR NR NR
Walker [67] 2019 Key contact person from each facility—site manager, deputy manager, director or deputy director of nursing NR NR NR Convenience NR 41 NR NR NR
  1. LTC long-term care, n number, NR not reported