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Table 3 Characteristics of included studies

From: How effective are social norms interventions in changing the clinical behaviours of healthcare workers? A systematic review and meta-analysis

Study characteristic (n = 106) No. % Study characteristic (n = 106) No. % Intervention characteristic (n = 117) No. %
Country    Type of trial    Source   
Australia 8 7.5 Cluster RCT 69 65.1 Peer 6 5.1
Canada 15 14.2 Factorial 4 3.8 Investigators 83 70.9
Denmark 4 3.8 Randomised controlled trial 28 26.4 Supervisor or senior colleague 2 1.7
UK 13 12.3 Stepped wedge 4 3.8 Patient 1 0.9
Netherlands 6 5.7 Matched pairs, cluster RCT 1 0.9 Credible source 15 12.8
USA 45 42.5 Low baseline performance?a    Other 1 0.9
Other/multiple 15 14.2 No 103 97.2 Not reported 9 7.7
Setting    Yes 2 1.9 Internal/external delivery b   
Primary (GP/GP practice nurses) 57 53.8 Unclear 1 0.9 Internal 17 14.5
Hospital (inpatient and outpatient) 31 29.3     External 81 69.2
Community 4 3.8     Unclear/not reported 19 16.2
Care/nursing home 4 3.8     Reference group   
Mixed 7 6.6     Peer 97 82.9
Other 3 2.8 Intervention characteristic (n = 117) No. % Professional body 1 0.9
Type of HCP    Format    Senior person 9 7.7
Doctor (primary care) 45 42.5 Face-to-face meeting 16 13.7 Patient(s) 1 0.9
Doctor (secondary) 19 17.9 Email 10 8.5 Multiple 4 3.4
Other (nurse/dentist/AHP/pharmacist) 7 6.6 Written (paper) 29 24.8 Unclear/not reported 5 4.3
Mixture/whole team 35 33.0 Separate computerised 10 8.5 Direction of change   
Target behaviour    Mixed 18 15.4 Increase 85 72.6
Prescribing (incl. vaccinations) 40 37.7 Unclear/not reported 34 29.1 Decrease 30 25.6
Handwashing/hygiene 4 3.8 Frequency    Maintenance 0 0.0
Tests/assessments 21 19.8 Only once 35 29.9 Unclear 2 1.7
Referrals 3 2.8 Twice 10 8.5 Comparator   
Management communications 25 23.6 More than twice 45 38.5 Alternative intervention 15 12.8
Other 2 1.9 Unclear/not reported 27 23.1 Usual practice 59 50.4
Multiple 11 10.4     Attention or waitlist control 18 15.4
Concomitant interventionc 25 21.4
  1. aDoes the inclusion criteria target participants based on low target performance?
  2. bThe person delivering the intervention internal or external to the target person’s organisation?
  3. cIntervention that appears in both arms