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Table 2 Effect of CDSS on proportion of appropriate tests. All values are absolute differences with 95% confidence intervals unless specified otherwise

From: Clinical decision support improves the appropriateness of laboratory test ordering in primary care without increasing diagnostic error: the ELMO cluster randomized trial

  Proportion appropriate tests Difference in proportions p value
CDSS arm Control arm
Primary outcome (all tests) 0.58 (0.54–0.62) 0.38 (0.34–0.41) 0.21 (0.16–0.26) < 0.0001
Subgroups per indication
 Check-up 0.26 (0.24–0.28) 0.17 (0.16–0.19) 0.08 (0.06–0.11) < 0.0001
 Medication follow-up 0.78 (0.75–0.82) 0.74 (0.70–0.78) 0.04 (0.00–0.09) 0.0591
 Cardiovascular disease management 0.41 (0.37–0.45) 0.30 (0.28–0.32) 0.11 (0.07–0.15) < 0.0001
 Hypertension 0.47 (0.43–0.50) 0.39 (0.35–0.42) 0.08 (0.03–0.12) 0.0007
 Type 2 diabetes 0.51 (0.47–0.54) 0.38 (0.35–0.41) 0.13 (0.08–0.17) < 0.0001
 Fatigue 0.81 (0.79–0.83) 0.67 (0.64–0.70) 0.14 (0.10–0.17) < 0.0001
 Anemia 0.82 (0.81–0.84) 0.76 (0.74–0.78) 0.06 (0.03–0.09) < 0.0001
 Liver disease 0.56 (0.53–0.59) 0.43 (0.39–0.46) 0.13 (0.08–0.18) < 0.0001
 Gout 0.27 (0.23–0.31) 0.16 (0.14–0.18) 0.11 (0.06–0.16) < 0.0001
 Chronic kidney disease 0.66 (0.61–0.70) 0.51 (0.46–0.56) 0.14 (0.09–0.20) < 0.0001
 Acute coronary syndrome 0.06 (0.05–0.07) 0.04 (0.02–0.05) 0.02 (0.01–0.04) 0.0081
 Lung embolisma 0.06 (0.02–0.10) 0.02 (0.01–0.04) 0.03 (− 0.01–0.08) 0.1608
 Rheumatoid arthritis 0.79 (0.76–0.82) 0.61 (0.56–0.66) 0.18 (0.12–0.24) < 0.0001
 Thyroid disease 0.50 (0.47–0.54) 0.45 (0.42–0.49) 0.05 (0.01–0.09) 0.0136
 Sexually transmitted infections 0.29 (0.23–0.36) 0.33 (0.27–0.39) − 0.04 (− 0.13–0.06) 0.4719
 Acute diarrhea 0.54 (0.46–0.62) 0.33 (0.28–0.38) 0.22 (0.10–0.33) 0.0002
 Chronic diarrhea 0.41 (0.34–0.49) 0.25 (0.22–0.29) 0.16 (0.08–0.24) 0.0001
  1. CDSS clinical decision support system
  2. aNumbers do not include corrections for the laboratory and the number of study indications per panel