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Table 6 Case study characteristics and programme implementation details

From: Effect of collaborative quality improvement on stillbirths, neonatal mortality and newborn care practices in hospitals of Telangana and Andhra Pradesh, India: evidence from a quasi-experimental mixed-methods study

  Case study 1 Case study 2 Case study 3 Case study 4
Key characteristics
Type and level Public—medical college** Private—secondary Public—medical college** Public—secondary
Area Urban Urban Urban Rural/tribal
Monthly admissions to NCU 103 59 152 145
No. beds in NCU 11 18 18 Missing
Paediatricians per 10 beds in NCU [state average 2] 2.7 1.7 1.1 n/a
Nurse per 10 bed in NCU [state average 7] 11.8 6.7 6.1 n/a
Monthly deliveries 1153 n/a 375 325
Baseline performance in NCU (selected indicators)
% of occasions when hand hygiene was followed in NCU [state average 16%] 15 42 0 0
% observed babies on exclusive breastfeeding [state average 72%] 91 100 96 75
Duration of implementation (months) April 2017
January 2018
June–December 2017
July 2017
July 2018
July 2017
July 2018
Total no. EBPs at programme end (based on interview) 2 0 6 9
Total no. EBP^ (based on programme reports) 5 2 5 8
QI team Active No QI team Active Active
Focus EBP (based on participants’ interviews) Hand hygiene
0 Hand-hygiene
Hand hygiene ANTT
Exclusive BF
Labour room
QI team Not formed No labour room Formed but unstructured QI work Active
Focus EBP (based on participants’ interviews) None n/a ANCS
[Vitamin K administration]
NRP at delivery
Early BF
  1. ANTT anti-septic non-touch technique for IV line insertion, ANCS ante-natal corticosteroid administration, BF breastfeeding, HRC high risk categorisation at admission, KMC Kangaroo Mother Care, NCU newborn care unit, NRP neonatal resuscitation trained personnel, TMA temperature monitoring at admission
  2. #At baseline
  3. *These were public secondary facilities at baselines, then accredited as medical colleges while the programme was ongoing
  4. ^Discrepancies are as follows:
  5. - Case study 1: qualitative interviews did not confirm QI activities on 3 practices in the labour room. Participants referred to additional practices, but suggested they had been working on these before this programme and were supported by concurrent programmes
  6. - Case study 2: programme reports include practices for which the facility provided monthly data; however, use of the QI approach was not confirmed by qualitative interviews
  7. - Case study 3: vitamin K was not in the SCSL change package. It was introduced in LR to rationalise over-admission in NCU where the only reason for referral to NCU was vitamin K administration
  8. - Case study 4: interview participants also referred to exclusive breastfeeding, for which the facility did not collect data