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Table 2 Summary of study characteristics and outcome measures

From: Effectiveness of interventions to improve rates of intravenous thrombolysis using behaviour change wheel functions: a systematic review and meta-analysis

First author and publication year Study information BCW intervention functions employed Number received IVT Total number of patients % received IVT
  Country Addressed factor Study design Quality score (%) Typea Number Intervention Control Intervention Control Intervention Control
Behrens et al. 2002 [20] Germany Pre- and in-hospital Uncontrolled before and after 63 1,5,9 3 9 1 86 57 10 2
Morgenstern et al. 2003 [21] USA Pre- and in-hospital Parallel group trial 89 1,5,7,8,9 5 9 1 80 70 11 1
Lattimore et al. 2003 [22] USA In-hospital Uncontrolled before and after 50 1,5,7,9 4 44 3 420 200 10 2
Belvis et al. 2005 [23] Spain Pre- and in-hospital Parallel group trial 67 2, 1 7 8 37 181 19 4
Wojner-Alexandrov et al. 2005 [24] USA Pre- and in-hospital Uncontrolled before and after 75 1,2,5,9,7 4 64 21 709 192 9 11
Ickenstein et al. 2005 [25] Germany In-hospital Uncontrolled before and after 67 2,5,9,1,7 5 45 10 164 155 27 6
Nam et al. 2007 [26] South Korea In-hospital Uncontrolled before and after 67 2,7,9 3 25 14 213 529 12 3
Demaerschalk et al. 2008 [27] USA Pre- and in-hospital Uncontrolled before and after 71 1,9 2 320 4 1800 1454 18 0
Abdullah et al. 2008 [28] USA Pre- and in-hospital Parallel group trial 79 2, 1 18 16 44 74 41 22
Quain et al. 2008 [29] Australia Pre- and in-hospital Uncontrolled before and after 88 2,5,7,9 4 30 5 140 107 21 5
Gladstone et al. 2009 [30] Canada Pre- and in-hospital Uncontrolled before and after 58 2,7,9 3 30 7 128 74 23 9
Pedrogosa et al. 2009 [31] Spain In-hospital Uncontrolled before and after 71 2,9 2 19 9 198 201 10 4
Chenkin et al. 2009 [32] Canada Pre- and in-hospital Uncontrolled before and after 79 5,2,9 3 56 18 554 307 10 6
Muller-Nordhorn et al. 2009 [33] Germany Pre-hospital Randomised controlled trial 100 1,5 2 17 13 741 647 2 2
Kim et al. 2009 [34] South Korea Pre- and in-hospital Uncontrolled before and after 71 2,9,7 3 47 44 328 678 14 6
Heo et al. 2010 [35] South Korea In-hospital Uncontrolled before and after 71 7,9,2 3 312 199 5404 5798 6 3
Dharmasaroja et al. 2010 [36] Thailand In-hospital Uncontrolled before and after 67 1,2,5,9 4 110 14 406 170 27 8
Bae et al. 2010 [37] South Korea Pre- and in-hospital Parallel group trial 79 2, 1 33 18 55 47 60 38
Sung et al. 2011 [38] Taiwan In-hospital Uncontrolled before and after 75 9, 1 21 40 139 338 15 12
Reiner-Deitemyer et al. 2011 [39] Austria Pre-hospital Parallel group trial 63 9, 1 224 1062 898 13,731 25 8
Hoegerl et al. 2011 [40] USA In-hospital Uncontrolled before and after 79 1,7,9 3 12 4 101 132 12 3
Etgen et al. 2011 [41] Germany In-hospital Uncontrolled before and after 71 5,7,9,2 4 95 24 742 500 13 5
Walter et al. 2011 [42] Germany In-hospital Uncontrolled before and after 79 9,7 2 16 32 78 120 21 27
Driks et al. 2011 [43] Netherland In-hospital Randomised controlled trial 100 1,7,9 3 391 305 2990 2525 13 12
Addo et al. 2012 [44] UK Pre-hospital Uncontrolled before and after 88 1, 1 45 55 274 326 16 17
Walter et al. 2012 [42] Germany Pre-hospital Randomised controlled trial 100 9,7 2 12 8 53 47 23 17
O'Brien et al. 2012 [45] Australia Pre- and in-hospital Uncontrolled before and after 67 1,2 2 22 5 115 67 19 7
Berglund et al. 2012 [46] Sweden Pre- and in-hospital Randomised controlled trial 81 2,9 2 60 24 488 454 12 5
Prabhakaran et al. 2012 [47] USA In-hospital Parallel group trial 71 9, 1 3335 732 58,512 61,027 6 1
Bhatt et al. 2012 [48] USA In-hospital Parallel group trial 75 9, 1 47 60 484 789 10 8
Scott et al. 2013 [49] USA In-hospital Randomised controlled trial 100 1,2,9 3 235 194 8419 9222 3 2
Meretoja et al. 2013 [50] Australia In-hospital Uncontrolled before and after 79 2,7,9 3 47 82 324 468 15 18
McKinney et al. 2013 [51] USA Pre- and in-hospital Parallel group trial 88 2, 1 31 17 114 115 27 15
Amorim et al. 2013 [52] USA In-hospital Uncontrolled before and after 67 9,2 2 113 26 1669 919 7 3
Nolte et al. 2013 [53] Germany In-hospital Uncontrolled before and after 79 2, 1 51 14 64 36 80 39
Prabhakaran et al. 2013 [47] USA Pre- and in-hospital Uncontrolled before and after 79 2, 1 64 22 787 719 8 3
Schaik et al. 2014 [54] Netherland Pre- and in-hospital Uncontrolled before and after 83 2,7,9 3 185 41 951 828 19 5
Fonarow et al. 2014 [55] USA In-hospital Uncontrolled before and after 79 2,7,9 3 3552 1557 43,850 27,319 8 6
Ebinger et al. 2014 [56] Germany Pre-hospital Randomised controlled trial 100 9,7 2 310 220 1070 1041 29 21
Minnerup et al. 2014 [57] Germany Pre- and in-hospital Parallel group trial 63 9, 1 13,240 622 71,349 22,549 19 3
Camerlingo et al. 2014 [58] Italy Pre- and in-hospital Uncontrolled before and after 83 1,5,9 3 23 8 401 376 6 2
Ruff et al. 2014 [59] USA Pre- and in-hospital Uncontrolled before and after 75 2,7,9 3 142 116 925 1413 15 8
Hesselfeldt et al. 2014 [60] Denmark Pre-hospital Parallel group trial 75 9, 1 22 87 65 265 34 33
Chen et al. 2014 [61] Taiwan In-hospital Uncontrolled before and after 88 2, 1 216 91 2512 3500 9 3
Martinez-Sanchez et al. 2014 [62] Spain In-hospital Uncontrolled before and after 83 9,2 2 18 12 225 259 8 5
Ragoschke-Schumm et al. 2015 [63] UK In-hospital Parallel group trial 75 7, 1 66 49 174 81 38 60
Willeit et al. 2015 [64] Austria Pre- and in-hospital Uncontrolled before and after 75 2,7 2 160 82 1238 1237 13 7
Kim et al. 2015 [65] South Korea In-hospital Uncontrolled before and after 75 2, 1 202 44 341 132 59 33
Baldin et al. 2015 [66] Australia In-hospital Uncontrolled before and after 79 9,2 2 16 10 62 58 26 17
Moran et al. 2016 [67] Hawaii In-hospital Uncontrolled before and after 75 9, or 7 1 122 44 388 151 31 29
Busby et al. 2016 [68] USA Pre- and in-hospital Uncontrolled before and after 75 2, 1 52 41 397 414 13 10
Choi et al. 2016 [69] South Korea In-hospital Uncontrolled before and after 58 7,9 2 118 111 2078 2172 6 5
Nishijima et al. 2016 [70] Japan Pre-hospital Uncontrolled before and after 71 1, 1 36 41 600 544 6 8
Kim et al. 2016 [71] South Korea Pre- and in-hospital Parallel group trial 75 2, 1 215 59 306 136 70 43
Prabhakaran et al. 2016 [72] USA In-hospital Parallel group trial 75 1,3,7,9 4 766 1626 10,314 15,261 7 11
Hubert et al. 2016 [73] Finland In-hospital Parallel group trial 83 9,2 2 1779 912 11,589 3387 15 27
Itrat et al. 2016 [74] USA Pre-hospital Parallel group trial 83 9,7 2 16 13 110 56 15 23
Denti et al. 2017 [75] Italy Pre-hospital Randomised controlled trial 100 1, 1 145 156 649 503 22 31
Zaidi et al. 2017 [76] USA Pre- and in-hospital Parallel group trial 79 2,5,7 3 28 18 109 142 26 13
Heikkila et al. 2019 [77] USA Pre- and in-hospital Uncontrolled before and after 71 9, 1 51 124 355 1581 14 8
Hsiao et al. 2018 [78] Taiwan In-hospital Parallel group trial 75 2, 1 40 18 254 118 16 15
Carvalho et al. 2018 [79] Brazil In-hospital Uncontrolled before and after 75 5,7 2 28 13 154 61 18 21
Gurav et al. 2018 [80] India In-hospital Uncontrolled before and after 75 2, 1 65 44 610 695 11 6
Tan et al. 2018 [81] Sweden Pre- and in-hospital Uncontrolled before and after 75 2,7 2 281 129 826 416 34 31
Haesebaert et al. 2018 [82] France Pre- and in-hospital Randomised controlled trial 100 1,5,7 3 140 114 363 328 39 35
Nguyen-Huynh et al. 2018 [83] USA Pre- and in-hospital Uncontrolled before and after 88 2,7,9 3 557 310 3168 2375 18 13
Cone et al. 2018 [84] USA Pre- and in-hospital Uncontrolled before and after 83 2, 1 94 181 219 316 43 57
Sadeghi-Hokmabadi et al. 2018 [85] Iran Pre- and in-hospital Parallel group trial 79 2, 1 131 115 180 194 73 59
Meyer et al. 2008 [86] USA In-hospital Randomised controlled trial 89 9,2 2 31 28 111 111 28 25
de Luca et al. 2009 [87] Italy In-hospital Randomised controlled trial 100 5,9 2 15 2 434 328 3 1
Muller-Barna et al. 2014 [88] Germany In-hospital Uncontrolled before and after 83 9,2 2 655 63 4409 2466 15 3
Vidale et al. 2016 [89] Italy Pre- and in-hospital Parallel group trial 75 2,5,7 3 37 14 610 424 6 3
Nardetto et al. 2016 [90] Italy In-hospital Parallel group trial 71 9,2 2 25 106 75 318 33 33
Hsieh et al. 2016 [91] Taiwan Pre- and in-hospital Parallel group trial 79 2, 1 144 25 727 201 20 12
Jeon et al. 2017 [92] South Korea Pre- and in-hospital Uncontrolled before and after 83 2,7 2 34 141 297 2012 11 7
Zhou et al. 2017 [93] China In-hospital Parallel group trial 71 9, 1 231 88 712 689 32 13
Henry-Morrow et al. 2017 [94] USA Pre- and in-hospital Uncontrolled before and after 50 1, 1 16 8 82 38 20 21
  1. aCoding of BCW intervention function type: Education = 1, Persuasion = 2, Incentivisation = 3, Coercion = 4, Training = 5, Restriction = 6, Environmental restructuring = 7, Modelling = 8, Enablement = 9