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Table 2 Characteristics of the D&I CBIs included in the review

From: Building capacity in dissemination and implementation science: a systematic review of the academic literature on teaching and training initiatives

First author/date Lead organisation Name of D&I CBI Whata/how Description Level
Ackerman, 2016 [88] University of California, USA 1. Action Research Programme (ARP) Clerkship/F-F Nine-month CBI comprising experiential learning in cardiology clinics (weekly in sequential rotations of 9 consecutive weeks), reflective writing (after each clinic rotation), seminars on systems-based practice and implementation science (weekly in the first 3 months of training), and a clinic-based project focussed on strategies to improve the quality and efficiency of clinical operations (amount of time dedicated to this at the students’ discretion). CBI includes a mentoring component from clinicians. UG
Baumann, 2019 [57] (e-print ahead of 2020 publication) Washington University, USA 2. Implementation Research Institute (IRI) Training institute/blended Two-year CBI comprising 2 annual week-long training sessions in mental health implementation science, plus mentoring throughout the course of the training. Also involves working on a concept paper, field implementation projects and attending implementation science conferences. This paper focusses on the productivity of those that have attended the training. CBI also described in Brownson, 2017A, Luke, 2016, Proctor, 2013. Doct
Brownson, 2017A [18] Washington University, USA 2. Implementation Research Institute (IRI) Training institute/blended Two-year CBI comprising 2 annual week-long training sessions in mental health implementation science, plus mentoring throughout the course of the training, attending implementation science conferences, working on a concept paper and field implementation projects. CBI also described in Baumann, 2019, Luke, 2016 and Proctor, 2013. Doct
Brownson, 2017B [18] Washington University, USA 3. Mentored Training for Dissemination & Implementation Research in Cancer (MT-DIRC) Training programme/blended Two-year CBI comprising 2 annual 5 day-long training sessions and mentoring over the full duration of the training, working on a research proposal or project and webinar sessions. CBI also described in Padek, 2018. PD
Brownson, 2017C [18] Washington University, USA 4. Introduction to D&I Science Course/NR One credit course—highlighted in the article in the ‘Dissemination and Implementation Research Core’ section but no further information provided. NR
Brownson, 2017D [18] Washington University, USA 5. Implementing and Evaluating Evidence-based practice Course/NR Three credit course—highlighted in the article in the ‘Dissemination and Implementation Research Core’ section but no further information provided. NR
Burton, 2016 [89] University of Florida, USA 6. The Institute for Translational Research in Adolescent Behavioural Health Graduate certificate/blended 15 credit graduate certificate which is held over 4 consecutive academic semesters and comprises 3 online courses: Foundations in Adolescent Behavioural Health; Translational Research Methods; Advanced Research Education. Also comprises mentoring and 3 service-learning modules focussed on designing, implementing and evaluating interventions in the community. CBI also involved developing/implementing an idea for a D&I project as part of the training. Post
Carlfjord, 2017 [47] Linköping University, Sweden 7. Implementation Theory and Practice Course/F-Fa Doctoral-level course on implementation science with an emphasis on implementation theories, models and frameworks. CBI is held between Sept-Dec. Doct
Farrell, 2014A [90] National Cancer Institute, USA 8. Research to Reality cyber Seminars Seminars/remote This CBI and the two listed below (Farrell B and Farrell C) are part of an online community of practice providing training and support in D&I training, broken down into distinct CBIs. The cyber series (described here) is a 10-month cycle of seminars (individuals can choose which to attend), comprising web-based presentations focussed on translating research into practice and pairing researchers with practitioners to conduct implementation research. NR
Farrell, 2014B [90] National Cancer Institute, USA 9. Research to Reality Mentorship Program Mentorship programme/remote Pilot mentorship programme where (through a website) individuals follow 6 mentor-mentee pairs through monthly storyboards (not clear for how many months) that highlight their progress in implementing evidence-based practices in their communities. NR
Farrell, 2014C [90] National Cancer Institute, USA 10. Advanced Topics in Implementation Science Webinars/remote An online platform that convenes implementation scientists to teach and share perspectives on current implementation science topics and their implementation research and practice. NR
Gonzalez, 2012A [104] University of California, USA 11. Translating Evidence into Practice – Implementation & Dissemination courses Modules integrated in a master’s programme/F-F A series of modules that have been integrated into the Training in Clinical Research (TICR) programme, including the 2-year master’s programme in clinical research - comprises 5 courses related to translating evidence into practice with a focus on theory and design, individual and system-level implementation strategies and community-engaged research and policy. Three of the 5 courses must be selected. Post
Gonzalez, 2012B [104] University of California, USA 12. Implementation & Dissemination Training Course/NR Independent of the master’s programme (described in Gonzalez 2012A)—intensive training experience where the principles of implementation and dissemination science are applied through participation in a quality improvement, delivery system innovation or health promotion project. NR
Gonzalez, 2012C [104] University of California, USA 13. Implementation & Dissemination Science Grant Writing Course Course/NR This course is listed in Table 1 of the article as one of the relevant activities offered as part of the TICR that relates to D&I but is not described in any detail elsewhere in the paper. NR
Goodenough, 2013 [49] Dementia Research Collaborative, Australia 14. Knowledge Translation Workshop/F-F One-day workshop on knowledge translation (KT) in dementia which also includes 3 optional seminars of which delegates choose two—2 seminars are related to clinical updates in dementia and the third relates to principles of KT (2-h seminar). The article focusses mainly on the seminar which is part of the workshop and how KT knowledge and practice differ between those that did and did not opt to attend the seminar. NR
Greenhalgh, 2006 [105] University College London, UK 15. Masters in Primary Health Care Modules integrated in a master’s programme/remote This MSc includes a module on ‘Getting research into practice’—the name of the module implies that it has overall relevance to D&I but the specifics of this is not provided in the article. The whole MSc is structured around study units that run on a 7-week cycle and assume 10 h a week of student input. Post
Jones, 2015 [91] University of Melbourne, Australia 16. Knowledge Translation for Researchers Course/F-F One day course (pilot course was half-day) on practical KT strategies for researchers across 5 themes—theory, planning KT, developing relationships, communicating research and evaluating KT impact. NR
Kho, 2009 [106] Canadian Institute for Health Research (CIHR), Canada 17. Knowledge Translation Summer Institute (KTSI) Training institute/F-F Four-day intensive CBI that focusses on health services, policy, population and public health areas. Delegates engage in activities relating to planning/carrying out KT research, stakeholder engagement, KT concepts, methods and theories. CBI includes a mentoring component. This CBI is also described in Leung, 2010 and is linked to Straus, 2011C. Doct/PD
Leung, 2010 [107] CIHR, Canada 17. End-of Grant KT Plan (part of the KTSI described above) Course integrated into a training institute/F-F This course formed part of the 4-day KT summer institute previously described (see Kho, 2009: also linked to Straus, 2011C). Trainees are assigned to small groups to work on case studies for developing an end-of-grant KT plan. Doct
Luke, 2016 [92] Washington University, USA 2. Implementation Research Institute Training institute/blended Two-year CBI comprising 2 annual week-long training sessions in implementation science in mental health, field implementation projects and attending implementation science conferences and mentorship (monthly mentoring call). This article specifically examines the benefits of the mentoring. CBI also discussed in Baumann, 2019, Brownson, 2017A and Proctor, 2013. Doct
Marriott, 2016 [93] Society for Implementation Research Collaboration (SIRC), USA 18. Implementation Development Workshop Workshop/F-F or remote CBI is provided in F-F format (6 h) and online (2 h). Provides individuals with the opportunity to vet projects and get feedback at the proposal stage of their implementation research (only open to members of the Network of Expertise). There is an opportunity for those interested in presenting their project ideas to do so but this is not a requirement. This article compares delegates’ attitudes towards the F-F versus remote format. NR
Means, 2016 [94] University of Washington, USA 19. Implementation Science and Health Metrics PhD/NR CBI focusses on the technical and applied skills to bridge the ‘know-do’ gap. Draws from multiple disciplines including epidemiology, biostatistics, health services research, economics and anthropology. Doct
Meissner, 2013 [48] National Institute for Health, USA 20. Training in Dissemination and Implementation Research in Health (TIDIRH) Training
Institute/F-F
Five-day CBI aimed at preparing investigators to conduct implementation research to increase the submission rate and quality of D&I grant applications and publications by returning to their home institute and teaching others what they have learnt. CBI also involves developing an idea for a D&I project as part of the training. CBI also discussed in Vinson, 2019. PD
Moore, 2018 [58] Knowledge Institute, St Michael’s Hospital, USA 21. Practising Knowledge Translation Course/blended Six-month CBI which focusses on the use of theories, models and frameworks and knowledge, skills and self-efficacy in KT intervention development and implementation – incorporates behaviour change theories, frameworks and evaluation cycles. It involves developing an idea for a D&I project as part of the training – comprises a 3-day workshop and 11 webinars over the 6-month period. NR
Moore, 2013 [108] Vanderbilt University, USA 22. EBP 11: Evaluating and Applying Evidence Course that is integrated in a Doctor of Nursing Program (DNP)/blended Offered as part of the first year of the Doctor of Nursing Program. Covers various content including knowledge translation in complex health care systems. The course runs over one term with three 2-h sessions in the first week and weekly sessions thereafter. Doct
Morrato, 2015 [95] University of Colorado, USA 23. Introduction to Dissemination and Implementation Workshop/F-Fb Introductory workshop focussed on concepts and methods in D&I such as design, theory, implementation strategies, measurement and tools and resources. The workshop is 1.5 days with the second (half-day) optional. Post
Norton, 2014 [96] University of Alabama, USA 24. Dissemination and Implementation in Health Course/blended CBI that is spread over one term (course participants meet twice weekly for 75 min and students and researchers meet once weekly for 1 h throughout). Aimed at students and academic researchers. For students, it involves a 3-credit course offered as an elective comprising didactic lectures and classroom activities including viewing online and audio-recorded presentations. Students are paired with academic researchers to work on a ‘collaborative project’ on developing and implementing an evidence-based practice. Post
Osanjo, 2016 [97] University of Nairobi, Kenya 25. Implementation Science Fellowship Program Fellowship programme/blended A two-year CBI with one substantive time commitment of 3-months of didactic training at the beginning of the program with the rest completed online, and in evenings/weekends. Focussed on all key elements of implementation science including research methods, developing, implementing, evaluating and sustaining interventions and stakeholder engagement. CBI involves undertaking a research project. Post
Padek, 2018 [98] Washington University, USA 3. The Mentored Training for Dissemination and Implementation Research in Cancer (MT-DIRC) Training program/blended Two-year CBI comprising a 5-day long intensive training institute held once a year, that individuals attend twice (once each year), mentorship throughout on their research ideas, calls to fellows and webinar sessions. Also involves working on a research proposal or project. CBI also discussed in Brownson, 2017B. PD
Park, 2018 [99] Knowledge Institute, St Michaels Hospital, USA 26. Foundations in Knowledge Translation Training initiative/blended Two-year CBI which provides team training in KT practice and includes three tailored workshops, 2 years of coaching and an online platform for training materials and knowledge exchange. Topics included KT funding, evaluation and sustainability. CBI involved applying in teams for the training. NR
Proctor, 2013 [109] Washington University, USA 2. Implementation Research Institute Training institute/blended Two-year CBI comprising a 5-day long intensive training institute in implementation science in mental health that is held once a year (individuals attend it twice; once each year), field implementation projects and attending implementation science conferences, plus mentoring throughout. Also involves working on a research proposal or project. CBI also discussed in Baumann, 2019, Brownson, 2017A and Luke, 2016. Doct
Proctor, 2019 [100] Washington University, USA 27. Training in Implementation Practice Leadership (TRIPLE) Training programme/F-Fc CBI Comprises lectures, group exercises and reading and involved optional conference calls for more in-depth coaching and mentoring. Trainees develop and trial a small-scale implementation project in their setting. Content focusses on knowledge and skills necessary to ‘lead’ the implementation and evaluation of evidence-based practices. CBI is spread over 3 months approximately with 3 half-days, 4 weeks apart. NR
Ramaswamy, 2019 [62] Chapel Hill, University of North Carolina, USA 28. Applied Implementation Science Module that is integrated into a master’s programme/remote Umbrella term for a 4-course sequence in implementation science (on design, implementation, improvement and evaluation) which is part of the masters in public health and open to doctoral students and students in other Schools. Each module is approximately 1–2 weeks in duration (full duration of course is not reported). Post
Riner, 2015 [101] Indiana university, USA 29. Evidence-based Research and Translational Science: Inquiry 11 Course that is integrated into a DNP/F-F Part of the Doctor of Nursing Practice that comprises two didactic courses (Inquiry 1 and 11) and seven practicum credits. Inquiry 1 involves a literature review of a best practice. Inquiry 2 involves implementing the best practice (and is the focus of this article) with the practicum providing the framework for the project. Inquiry 11 is made of up 4 modules related to planning and implementing a project. Doct
Straus, 2011A [110] CIHR, Canada 30. Knowledge Translation Seminars (stream 1) Seminar/remote Article describes a number of CBIs relating to different KT ‘streams’ (1,2,3)—each stream is directed towards different groups of individuals. Within each stream, there are several distinct CBIs. Stream 1 focussses on advanced training in the science and practice of KT—the breakdown of these CBIs is described here (see Straus 2011A-2011G). This CBI is a monthly seminar series that focusses on KT methodology Post
Straus, 2011B [110] CIHR, Canada 31. Research Operations (stream 1) Seminar/remote CBI involves quarterly seminars focussed on preparing, writing & reviewing grants, ethics submissions and manuscripts. Post
Straus, 2011C [110] CIHR, Canada 17. Knowledge Translation Summer Institute (KTSI) (stream 1) Training institute/F-F CBI is a training institute that is focussed on a different theme each year—e.g. exploring the knowledge to action framework or developing KT interventions—and addresses one or more of the KT core competencies. A mentoring component is included. CBI also described in Kho, 2009 and Leung, 2010. Post
Straus, 2011D [110] CIHR, Canada 32. Introduction to Evidence-based Medicine (stream 1) Course/NR CBI mentioned in the text and highlighted in Table 2 of the article, but no further information provided. Post
Straus, 2011E [110] CIHR, Canada 33. Introduction to Systematic Reviews (stream 1) Course/remote or F-F CBI mentioned in the text and highlighted in Table 2 of the article, but no further information provided. Post
Straus, 2011F [110] CIHR, Canada 34. Pragmatic KT Trials (Stream 1) Course/remote or F-F CBI mentioned in the text and highlighted in Table 2 of the article, but no further information provided. Post
Straus, 2011G [110] CIHR, Canada 35. End of Grant KT (Stream 1) Course/NR Aimed at helping trainees as they prepare grants. Please note an ‘end of grant’ session is integrated in the KTSI (described in the KTSI in Straus 2011C), but this course is also available as a standalone ‘CBI’, i.e., separate to the KTSI, so is considered as a separate entry here. The content/focus of this CBI is linked to Kho, 2009 and Straus 2011C. Post
Straus, 2011H [110] CIHR, Canada 36. Integrated KT (Stream 2) Course/F-F or remote CBI in Stream 2 of the training which provides training in the basic principles of KT.
Modular integrated KT course, reflecting the knowledge to action loop (no further information provided).
NR
Straus, 2011I [110] CIHR, Canada 37. End of Grant KT (Stream 2) Course/F-Fd One-day CBI aimed at helping trainees as they prepare grants. Please note an ‘end of grant’ session is integrated in the KTSI (described in the KTSI in Straus 2011C), but this course is also available as a standalone ‘CBI’, i.e. separate to the KTSI, so it considered as a separate entry here. The content/focus of this CBI is linked to Kho, 2009 and Straus 2011C. NR
Straus, 2011J [110] CIHR, Canada 38. Introduction to KT (Stream 3) Course/NR CBI which is part of Stream 3 which focusses on basic training in KT for knowledge users. This CBI provides an overview of KT principles (no further information on it is provided). NR
Straus, 2011K [110] CIHR, Canada 39. Basics of KT (Stream 3) Course/F-F CBI covers the basics of KT principles and the opportunity for students to apply these to a project in their own setting. NR
Ulrich, 2017 [102] University of Heidelberg, Germany 40. Master of Science in Health Service Research and Implementation Science Modules that are part of a master’s program/F-F Two-year master’s program made up of five streams. One stream comprises 4 implementation science-related courses on concepts and methods; quality improvement and evaluation; organisational development in healthcare; putting research findings into practice (the latter involves writing an outline for an implementation science-related project). Post
Vinson, 2019 [103] National Institute for Health, USA 20. Training in Dissemination and Implementation Research in Health (TIDIRH) Training institute/F-Fe Five-day CBI aimed at preparing investigators to conduct implementation research to increase the submission rate and quality of D&I grant applications and publications by returning to their home institute and teaching others what they have learnt. CBI also involved developing an idea for a D&I project as part of the training. CBI also discussed in Meissner, 2013. PD
Wahabi, 2011 [111] King Saud University, Saudi Arabia 41. Advanced Evidence-Based Healthcare Workshop/F-F Train the trainer’s workshop to help enhance attendees’ abilities as clinical tutors in evidence-based medicine. Focussed on two things: 1) debate - various topics including, key concepts and methods of KT, KT frameworks and barriers and facilitators; 2) planning a KT project. NR
  1. Text in bold denotes relevant information about the CBI that was not described in the article but was described in another article in the review that focussed on the same CBI—the linked article(s) are highlighted in bold in the ‘description’ column
  2. Where articles are numbered ‘A’, ‘B’ (e.g. Brownson, 2017A, 2017B), these are CBIs that are discussed in the same article which are distinct from one another so are included as separate entries in the table. Each CBI is given a unique identifier to show the findings relating to each CBI
  3. The level of detail in Table 1 varies depending on what was reported in the article. Cells that are coded as ‘NR’ = when information is not reported or not clear
  4. The level of education reported in Table 1 is the minimum level of education the CBI is aimed at. The key is as follows: UG = undergraduate level; PG = postgraduate level; Doct = Doctoral-level; PD = postdoctoral level; NR = not explicitly reported
  5. Notes on mode of delivery column: (a) Carlfjord, 2017—a web-based version of the CBI was delivered in 2014 with two on-site visits; (b) Morrato, 2015—an interactive online e-book was made available for participants as a take home resource; (c) Proctor, 2019—optional conference calls to provide extra support were offered to those individuals that wanted it; (d) Straus, 2011I—article states they are working on developing an online module; (e) Vinson, 2019—webinar sessions were delivered on 2 days for the 2014 and 2015 occurrence of TIDIRH
  6. aThe ‘type’ of D&I CBI has been defined as the way in which the author(s) of each of the included articles refer to their CBI in the article