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Table 4 Behavior change techniques and number of interventions targeting health care consumers and included specific behavior change techniques, behavior change techniques taxonomy volume 1 (BCTTv1) hierarchical clusters, and intervention content examples

From: Public target interventions to reduce the inappropriate use of medicines or medical procedures: a systematic review

BCT BCTTv1 hierarchical clusters Examples extracted from descriptions of the interventions Frequency
3.1 Social support (unspecified) 3. Social support Educational programs for husbands of pregnant women that aimed to provide social support of husbands, which consequently reduces the rate of elective cesarean section. 3
3.3 Social support (emotional) 3. Social support A resource person will provide peer influence during decision making process about mode of delivery 1
4.1 Instruction on how to perform the behavior 4. Shaping knowledge Information about when antibiotics are and are not needed (e.g., rarely for bronchitis, not for colds). 34
4.2 Information about Antecedents 4. Shaping knowledge Information about bacterial and viral infections 22
5.1 Information about health consequences 5. Natural consequences Information about bacterial resistance or side effects of antibiotic use 22
5.2 Salience of consequences 5. Natural consequences Emphasis on the consequences inappropriate use of antibiotics (e.g., antimicrobial resistance or side effects of antibiotic use) 6
6.1 Demonstration of the behavior 6. Comparison of behavior Role play education to reduce the fear of childbirth 3
8.2 Behavior substitution 8. Repetition and substitution Alternative remedies instead of antibiotics for colds 11
9.1 Credible source 9. Comparison of outcomes Endorsement by CDC was designed to increase the credibility of key messages. 4
9.2 Pros and cons 9. Comparison of outcomes Information about the differences between generic and brand-name drugs in terms of advantages (high-quality bioequivalent formulations, health professionals’ preferences, avoidance of confusions) and disadvantages (popularity, fidelity to branded products) 8
10.1 Material incentive (behavior) 10. Reward and threat Switching to a lower-cost generic medication is cost-saving 3
10.2 Material reward (behavior) 10. Reward and threat Associated cost savings to the recipient from switching to each of these alternatives 3
12.1 Restructuring the physical environment 12. Antecedents Restriction on sale of antibiotics without prescription 8
12.2 Restructuring the social environment 12. Antecedents Interventions focused on empirically supported family risk and protective factors, such as parental nurturing, child management skills, improved parent–adolescent communication skills and adolescent prosocial skill development (e.g., managing conflict and stress, handling peer pressure, developing positive friendships) 3
12.5 Adding objects to the environment 12. Antecedents Mass media strategies were undertaken including advertising using billboards, television, radio, and magazines. 12
15 8   143