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Table 2 Design and characteristics of uncontrolled studies (N = 12)

From: Effects of de-implementation strategies aimed at reducing low-value nursing procedures: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Author (year), Country Design study Setting Target group Type of low value care Primary outcome (s) Before After Difference/ statistical test results Statistical analyses performed (Yes/No) Positive significant effect (p ≤ 0.05) (Yes/No)
Alexaitis et al. (2014), USA [27] Uncontrolled Before-after Hospital ICU nurses Catheter use The average percentage of catheter utilization 74.14% 76.2% 2.08% Yes No
Amato et al. (2006), USA [28] Uncontrolled Before-after Hospital Nurses Restraint use The percentage of restraint use (2 units) − 29.2% stroke rehabilitation unit, -16,2% brain injury unit No /
Andersen et al. (2017), Denmark [29] Uncontrolled Before-after Hospital Nurses Restraint use The percentage of restraint use − 38% Yes No
Davis et al. (2008), USA [30] Uncontrolled Before-after Hospital Nurse Practitioner Antibiotic prescribing The rate of antibiotic prescribing F = 0.076 Yes No
Eskandaria et al. (2018), Malaysia [31] Uncontrolled before-after Hospital Nurses Restraint use The incidence rate of physical restraint use 5.57% 3.81% − 1.76% Yes Yes
Hevenver et al. (2016), USA [32] Uncontrolled-before after Hospital ICU nurses Restraint use The incidence rate of restraint use − 32% Yes Yes
Link et al. (2016), USA [43] Uncontrolled Before-after Urgent care center Nurse practitioner (NP) and Physician Assistant (PA) Antibiotic prescribing The rate of antibiotic prescribing 91.7% 29.8% − 61.9% Yes Yes
McCue et al. (2004), USA [34] Uncontrolled before-after Hospital Psychiatric nurses Restraint use The number of restraints/1000 patient-days 0.8% 0.4% − 0.4% Yes Yes
Mitchell et al. (2018), USA [9] Uncontrolled Before-after Hospital ICU nurses Restraint use The rate of restraint use 61% 31% − 30% No /
Sinitsky et al. (2017), UK [35] Uncontrolled Before-after Hospital Pediatric intensive care nurses Liver function tests (LFT) Total number of LFTs per bed day N/A N/A N/A Yes Yes
Thakker et al. (2018), Canada [36] Uncontrolled Before-after Hospital Orthopaedic nurses Catheter use The average rate of indwelling catheter use 55.2% 19.8% − 35.4% No /
Weddle et al. (2016), USA [37] Uncontrolled Before-after Urgent care center Nurse practitioner Antibiotic prescribing The rates of inappropriate antibiotic prescribing per month 9% 6% − 3% Yes Yes
  1. N/A not available