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Table 1 Outcome measures by RE-AIM category

From: The Balanced Opioid Initiative: protocol for a clustered, sequential, multiple-assignment randomized trial to construct an adaptive implementation strategy to improve guideline-concordant opioid prescribing in primary care

Domain Source Months* collected
Reach: # and % of patients excluded vs. participating (incl. characteristics) EHR 1–21
Effectiveness: prescriber averages of MME dose per day per opioid patient over the past 3 months (primary outcome) EHR 1–21
# and % of patients completing urine drug testing (past 12 months) EHR 1–21
# and % of patients screened for mental health using PHQ-2 (past 12 months) EHR 1–21
Mental health (PHQ-9) scores for patients screening positive on PHQ-2 (past 12 months) EHR 1–21
Overall rate and dose of opioid-benzodiazepine co-prescribing EHR 1–21
# and % of patients with treatment agreements (past 12 months) EHR 1–21
# and % of opioid prescriptions above 90 MME EHR 1–21
Patient attendance at scheduled clinic visits EHR 1–21
# and % of patients prescribed buprenorphine EHR 1–21
# and % of patients with PEG-3 score (past 12 months) EHR 1–21
PEG-3 scores (past 12 months) EHR 1–21
Adoption (setting): # and % of participating clinics vs. all clinics (incl. characteristics) Health system 1–21
Adoption (staff): # and % of participating staff vs. all eligible clinic staff (incl. characteristics) Clinic 1–21
Clinician attendance at intervention meetings Research team 1–21
Implementation: Hours of intervention received per clinic and prescriber Research team 1–21
Adaptations made to protocols during intervention period Research team 1–21
Assessment of moderators: clinic-level experience in QI, size of clinic (# patients), # and % of patients at the clinic on opioid doses > 90 MME Research team, EHR 0, 3, 9, 21
Qualitative assessment of mechanisms of action and factors influencing implementation Research team 1–21
Cost of each implementation sequence and combination Research team 1–21
Maintenance: 6-month follow-up on all effectiveness outcomes EHR 22–27
  1. EHR electronic health record
  2. *Months correspond to intervention months