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Table 2 Characteristics of included studies

From: Use of the GRADE approach in health policymaking and evaluation: a scoping review of nutrition and physical activity policies

Author Document type Aim Policy (intervention) Setting
Al-Khudairy et al. [23] Evidence of effectiveness for policymaking (non-governmental) To assess the effects of diet, physical activity and behavioral interventions for the treatment of overweight or obese adolescents aged 12 to 17 years. School program Schools, population level
Baker et al. [24] Evidence of effectiveness for policymaking (non-governmental) To assess the effects of community-wide, multi-strategic interventions upon community levels of physical activity. Mass media, school programs, infrastructure Schools, communities
Balogun et al. [25] Evidence of effectiveness for policymaking (non-governmental) To examine interventions which aim to encourage women to breastfeed. Mass media Population level
Carducci et al. [26] Evidence of effectiveness for policymaking (non-governmental) To understand the impact of food environment interventions on diet-related health outcomes in school-age children and adolescents. Nutrition labeling, change in offerings, school program, mass media, infrastructure Schools, workplace, communities, population level
Crockett et al. [27] Policy evaluation (non-governmental) To examine whether nutritional labels (i.e., labels providing information about nutritional content) persuade people to buy or consume different (healthy) kinds of food. Nutrition labeling Population level
Cushing et al. [28] Evidence of effectiveness for policymaking (non-governmental) To evaluate the overall effectiveness of health promotion interventions in children and adolescents. Portion size, change in offerings, school program Communities, schools, population level
Dobbins et al. [29] Evidence of effectiveness for policymaking (non-governmental) To summarize the evidence of the effectiveness of school-based interventions in promoting physical activity and fitness in children and adolescents. School program, infrastructure Schools
Dyson et al. [30] Recommendations to guide policymaking (non-governmental) To present the latest evidence-based nutrition guidelines for the prevention and management of diabetes. Population education Population level
Elvsaas et al. [31] Evidence of effectiveness for policymaking (non-governmental) To assess the effect of multicomponent lifestyle interventions including two or more lifestyle components on change in BMI in children and adolescents. School program, mass media infrastructure Schools, population level
Erickson et al. [32] Evidence of effectiveness for policymaking (non-governmental) To systematically review guidelines on sugar intake and assess consistency of recommendations, methodological quality of guidelines, and the quality of evidence supporting each recommendation. Population education Population level
Flatz et al. [33] Evidence of effectiveness for policymaking (non-governmental) To determine the effectiveness of interventions implemented through sporting organizations to promote physical activity, healthy diet, reductions in alcohol consumption or tobacco use. Mass media Population level
Freak-Poli et al. [34] Evidence of effectiveness for policymaking (non-governmental) To assess the effectiveness of pedometer interventions in the workplace for increasing physical activity and improving subsequent health outcomes. Financial incentive, infrastructure Workplace
Heise et al. [35] Policy evaluation (governmental) To assess the effects of taxation of SSBs, on SSB consumption, energy intake, overweight, obesity, and other adverse health outcomes in the general population. Financial incentive Population level
Heise et al. [36] Evidence of effectiveness for policymaking (non-governmental) To assess the effectiveness of voluntary participation in community gardening compared on overweight/obesity and associated health outcomes. School program, infrastructure Population level, Schools
Hodder et al. [37] Evidence of effectiveness for policymaking (non-governmental) To assess the effectiveness, cost-effectiveness, and associated adverse events of interventions designed to increase the consumption of fruit, vegetables, or both among children aged 5 years and under. Change of offerings, school program, infrastructure Population level, schools
Hollands et al. [38] Evidence of effectiveness for policymaking (non-governmental) To assess the effects of interventions involving exposure to different sizes or sets of physical dimensions of a portion, package, individual unit, or item of tableware on unregulated selection or consumption of food, alcohol, or tobacco products in adults and children. Portion/package size Population level
Langford et al. [39] Policy evaluation (non-governmental) To assess the effectiveness of the WHO Health Promoting Schools (HPS) framework in improving the health and well-being of students and their academic achievement. WHO program: Health Promoting Schools:
School program, population education, infrastructure, change in offerings
Schools, population level
Lhachimi et al. [40] Policy evaluation (governmental) To assess the effects of taxation of fat content in food on consumption of total fat and saturated fat, energy intake, overweight, obesity, and other adverse health outcomes in the general population. Financial incentives Population level
Martin et al. [41] Evidence of effectiveness for policymaking (non-governmental) To evaluate the effect of interventions which included an SB outcome measure in adults. Financial incentives, infrastructure Workplace, population level
Matwiejczyk et al. [42] Evidence of effectiveness for policymaking (non-governmental) To examine (1) the effectiveness of interventions to promote healthy eating in children aged 2–5 years attending center-based childcare; (2) intervention characteristics which are associated with successfully promoting healthy eating in pre-schoolers; and (3) recommendations for child-health directed policies and practices. School program, change in offerings, population education Schools
McLaren et al. [43] Policy evaluation (governmental) To assess the impact of population-level interventions for dietary sodium reduction in government jurisdictions worldwide and to assess the differential impact of those initiatives by social and economic indicators. Change in offerings, Nutrition labeling Population level
Mosdol et al. [44] Evidence of effectiveness for policymaking (non-governmental) To determine the effect of mass media interventions targeting adult, ethnic minorities with messages about physical activity, dietary patterns, tobacco use, or alcohol consumption to reduce risk of NCDs. Mass media Population level
NICE [45] Recommendations to guide policymaking (non-governmental) To improve the physical environment to encourage and support physical activity. The aim is to increase the general population’s physical activity levels. Population education Population level
Oakman et al. [46] Evidence of effectiveness for policymaking (non-governmental) To assess systematically the available evidence on the effectiveness of work-based interventions on the work ability of employees. (Financial) incentives, infrastructure Workplace
Okely et al. [47] Recommendations to guide policymaking (non-governmental) To outline the process and outcomes for adapting the Canadian 24-Hour Movement Guidelines for the Early Years to develop the Australian 24-Hour Movement Guidelines for the Early Years guided by the GRADE-ADOLOPMENT framework. Population education Population level
Pfinder et al. [48] Policy evaluation (governmental) To assess the effects of taxation of unprocessed sugar or sugar-added foods in the general population on the following:
1. Consumption of unprocessed sugar or sugar-added foods;
2. Prevalence and incidence of overweight and obesity; and
3. Prevalence and incidence of diet-related health conditions.
Financial incentive Population level
von Philipsborn et al. [49] Policy evaluations (governmental) To assess the effects of environmental interventions (excluding taxation) targeted at sugar-sweetened beverages or low-calorie alternatives to sugar-sweetened beverages on consumption levels, diet-related anthropometric measures, and health outcomes, and on any reported unintended consequences or adverse outcomes. Nutrition labeling Population level
Salam et al. [50] Evidence of effectiveness for policymaking (non-governmental) To assess the impact of lifestyle interventions (including dietary interventions, physical activity, behavioral therapy or any combination of these interventions) along with the contextual factors to prevent and manage childhood and adolescent obesity. Change in offerings, school program Schools, communities, population level
Shrestha et al. [51] Evidence of effectiveness for policymaking (non-governmental) To evaluate the effectiveness of workplace interventions to reduce sitting at work. Infrastructure, population education Workplace
Tremblay et al. [52] Recommendations to guide policymaking (non-governmental) To outline the process and outcomes for the development of the first Canadian Physical Activity Guidelines for the Early Years (aged 0–4 years) and to provide a summary of this process and present the guidelines themselves. Population education Population level
Tremblay et al. [53] Recommendations to guide policymaking (non-governmental) To outline the process and outcomes for the development of the Canadian 24-Hour Movement Guidelines for Children and Youth: An Integration of Physical Activity, Sedentary Behavior, and Sleep. Population education Population level
Verweij et al. [54] Evidence of effectiveness for policymaking (non-governmental) To critically examine the effectiveness of workplace interventions targeting physical activity, dietary behavior, or both on weight outcomes. Population education Workplace
WHO [55] Recommendations to guide policymaking (inter-governmental) To provide guidance on appropriate assessment and management of infants and children at primary health-care facilities, in order to reduce the risk of overweight and obesity among children, including those living in settings where both undernutrition and overweight/obesity are prevalent. Population education Population level
WHO [56] Recommendations to guide policymaking (inter-governmental) To provide recommendations on the consumption of potassium to reduce NCDs in adults and children. Population education Population level
WHO [57] Recommendations to guide policymaking (inter-governmental) To provide recommendations on the consumption of sodium to reduce NCDs in most adults and children. Population education Population level
WHO [58] Recommendations to guide policymaking (inter-governmental) To provide recommendations on the intake of free sugars to reduce the risk of NCDs in adults and children, with a particular focus on the prevention and control of unhealthy weight gain and dental caries. Population education Population level
  1. SSB sugar-sweetened beverages, SB sedentary behavior, NCD non-communicable disease, GRADE-ADOLOPMENT GRADE Evidence to Decision frameworks for adoption, adaptation, and de novo development of trustworthy recommendations