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Table 8 Kazdin criteria

From: A systematic review of empirical studies examining mechanisms of implementation in health

 AssociationSpecificityConsistencyManipulationTimelineGradientPlausibilityTotal
Qualitative
Bardosh et al. 2017 [16]00100012
Brewster et al. 2015 [17]00100012
Carrera and Lambooij 2015 [18]00000011
Frykman et al. 2014 [19]00001012
Wiener-Ogilvie et al. 2008 [20]00100012
Quantitative—randomized
Atkins et al. 2008 [21]00110013
Baer et al. 2009 [22]00101013
Bonetti et al. 2005 [23]11101015
Garner et al. 2011 [24]01010013
Glisson et al. 2010 [25]00011013
Holth et al. 2011 [26]10111014
Lee et al. 2018 [27]00000011
Lochman et al. 2009 [28]01011003
Rapkin et al. 2017 [29]10001114
Rohrbach et al. 1993 [30]00011013
Seys et al. 2018 [31]11011015
Williams et al. 2014 [32]01011014
Williams et al. 2017 [33]11111016
Quantitative—non-randomized
Aarons et al. 2009 [34]10100014
Becker et al. 2016 [35]00011013
Beenstock et al. 2012 [36]10000001
Beets et al. 2008 [37]10100013
Bonetti et al. 2009 [38]10100013
Chou et al. 2011 [39]10000012
Cummings et al., 2017 [40]00100013
David and Schiff 2017 [41]10100013
Edmunds et al. 2014 [42]00001001
Gnich et al. 2018 [43]00101013
Guerrero et al. 2018 [44]10100012
Huis et al. 2013 [45]00011013
Little et al. 2015 [46]10000012
Llasus et al. 2014 [47]10100013
Nelson and Steele 2007 [48]10000012
Potthoff et al. 2017 [49]10000012
Presseau et al. 2016 [50]00100012
Simmonds et al. 2012 [51]10000012
Stockdale et al. 2018 [52]10000012
Wanless et al. 2015 [53]00001012
Mixed methods
Armson et al. 2018 [54]00100012
Birken et al. 2015 [55]00000011
Kauth et al. 2010 [56]00011013
Lukas et al. 2009 [57]11000013
Panzano et al. 2012 [58]10000012
Rangachari et al. 2015 [59]00001001
Shrubsole et al. 2018 [60]00011013
  1. Studies that only tested mediation relationships are not included in this table