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Table 2 Comparison of the action plan contents between the feedback with toolbox (10 ICUs) and feedback only (11 ICUs) group

From: Facilitating action planning within audit and feedback interventions: a mixed-methods process evaluation of an action implementation toolbox in intensive care

Action plan contents (all actions) Feedback with toolbox (n = 153) Feedback only (n = 81) p value
 Position in the feedback cycle*    0.012
  Verification (e.g. check data accuracy, understand the problem) 9 (5.9) 10 (12.3)  
  Acceptance (e.g. explore possible solutions) 16 (10.5) 18 (22.2)  
  Intention (i.e. active effort to change practice) 49 (32.0) 16 (19.8)  
  Behaviour (i.e. practice change) 79 (51.6) 37 (45.7)  
 Total number of actions completed 96 (62.7) 51 (63.0)  
Action plan contents (actions reflecting Intention or Behaviour to change practice) Feedback with toolbox (n = 128) Feedback only (n = 53) p value
 Origin    
  Selected from the toolbox 104 (81.3)   
  Self-defined; similar action available in the toolbox 13 (10.2) 32 (60.4)  
  Self-defined; no similar action available in the toolbox 11 (8.6) 21 (39.6)  
 Practice domain targeted*    0.331
  Guideline 21 (16.4) 6 (11.3)  
  Individual health professional 50 (39.1) 29 (54.7)  
  Professional interactions 3 (2.3) 1 (1.9)  
  Incentives and resources 36 (28.1) 14 (26.4)  
  Capacity for organisational change 13 (10.2) 3 (5.7)  
  Patient 5 (3.9) 0 (0.0)  
 Total number of actions completed 79 (61.7) 37 (69.8)  
 Median number of actions planned (IQR) 8 (6.25–14.75) 5 (2.5–5) 0.037
 Median number of actions completed (IQR) 4 (2–11) 3 (1–3) 0.142
 Median percentage of actions completed (IQR) 59.2 (37.9–94.1) 60 (20–75) 0.479
 Median average number of days taken to complete actions (IQR) 56.5 (32.6–125.4) 59.8 (44–95.8) 0.762
  1. Values are n (%) of the total number of actions in the study group, except the median (IQR; interquartile ranges) values which summarise at the action plan level (equals ICU level)
  2. *Positions in the feedback cycle reflect one of the sequential feedback processes from CP-FIT [18]; practice domains originate from Flottorp et al.’s checklist for identifying practice determinants [20]