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Table 1 Definitions of adaptation

From: A systematic review of adaptations of evidence-based public health interventions globally

Article Adaptation definition
Backer (CSAP, 2002) [11] “The deliberate or accidental modification of the program, including the following:
a. Deletions or additions (enhancements) of program components;
b. Modifications in the nature of the components that are included;
c. Changes in the manner or intensity of administration of program components called for in the program manual, curriculum, or core components analysis; or
d. Cultural and other modifications required by local circumstances.”
McKleroy et al. 2006 [16] Quotes Rogers’ (1995) definition and the CSAP definition (see above).
Solomon et al. [6] Modifying an efficacious program to meet the needs of its new target population and community context while retaining fidelity (or adherence) to its core components.
Smith and Caldwell [14] “Evidence-based programs should not be changed randomly but should be modified based on a careful review of program content, the theoretical underpinnings involved, and the context of the new environment. Four different forms of adaptation need to be considered: structural, content, provider, and delivery.”
Wingood and DiClemente [9] “The process of modifying an EBI without competing with or contradicting its core elements or internal logic.”
Barrera and Castro, Kumpfer et al. [17, 22] Developing cultural adaptations or accommodations of EB practices for international transport is a … “process requiring careful assessment of the local political, religious, and economic context as well as the cultural norms and family practices of country and internal ethnic groups. It should be a careful and rigorous process …guided by research and theory.”
Lee et al. [7] “Inherent in [the process of moving evidence-based programs (EBPs) from research to practice] is the tension between implementing programs with fidelity and the need to tailor programs to fit the target population.”
Card et al. [3] “The process of altering a program to reduce mismatches between its characteristics and those of the new context in which it is to be implemented or used.”
Chen et al. [8] “Methods of planned adaptation identify differences in the new target population and attempt to make changes to the EBI that accommodate these differences without diluting the program’s effectiveness.”
Rolleri [10] “The process of making changes to a program in order to make it more suitable for a particular population or for an organization, based upon its capacity. Changes to a program should be made without compromising or deleting the program’s core components.”
Bartholomew et al. [42] Systematic adaptation requires that planners make adaptation decisions by comparing the logic of change in the EBI with the needs of the new community. Planners should only make changes that correspond with mismatches between the EBI and community needs.