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Table 4 Parameter estimates from hurdle regression of NC-CPESN implementation and program reach of NC-CPESN implementation

From: Testing the organizational theory of innovation implementation effectiveness in a community pharmacy medication management program: a hurdle regression analysis

Characteristics Equation 1: binary (implementation)
AMEa,b (SE)
Equation 2: positives (program reach)
AMEa (SE)
Key independent variables
 Implementation climated 2.65 (1.85 × 103)c*** 5.05 (1.5)**
 Innovation-values fitd 2.17 (1.041 × 102)* 11.79 (3.170)***
Patient needs and resources
 Rural location −0.77 (0.016) − 12.81 (4.658)**
 Clinical factors −0.04 (3 × 104) − 0.14 (0.11)
 Social factors −0.06 (3 × 104) − 0.10 (0.10)
 340B participation 5.70 (3.50 × 102)* 12.80 (5.760)*
 Proportion of high-risk patients 0.00 (0.00)*
 Log of high-risk patients (exposure)
Available resources
 Presence of a clinical pharmacist 9.86 (4.75 × 102)* 32.33 (10.670)***
 Total number of staff − 0.31 (2.6 × 103) − 1.98 (0.550)***
 Presence of pharmacy student or resident 6.86 (6.37 × 102) 14.55 (7.273)
Access to knowledge about the intervention
 Amount of experience with NC-CPESN (months) 0.43 (1.3 × 103)** 1.57 (0.610)***
 Past performance with NC-CPESN 0.46 (1.3 × 102)*** 0.10 (0.031)***
 Participation in Medicare Part D MTM 18.73 (6.246 × 102)** 28.05 (13.83)*
Structural characteristics
 Independent pharmacy 4.14 (2.02 × 102)* 0.43 (5.6)
 Low prescription volume 1.08 (0.032) 7.23 (7.21)
 Established pharmacy 2.02 (0.015) 4.14 (7.46)
Alpha 0.56 (7.08 × 102)**
Constant − 21.04 (4.79)*** − 14.03 (1.383)***
Observations 180 104
  1. Significance of hurdle regression: *p < 0.05, **p < 0.01, ***p < 0.001
  2. aAME, average marginal effect
  3. bEffect sizes for the stage 1 model are in percentage points; for example, 9.86 for presence of clinical pharmacist indicates that the probability of implementing NC-CPESN was 9.86 percentage points higher for pharmacies that have a clinical pharmacist
  4. cAny standard errors that were carried out to the ten-thousandths place value or smaller are represented in scientific notation
  5. dEquation 1 and 2 include an interaction term (implementation climate*innovation-values fit), which is represented in the AME of implementation climate and innovation-values fit