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Table 1 Domains of the Theoretical Domains Framework (TDF)

From: To fill or not to fill: a qualitative cross-country study on dentists’ decisions in managing non-cavitated proximal caries lesions

Domain Construct Definition
Knowledge Knowledge Knowledge of a condition or scientific rationale.
  Procedural knowledge Knowing how to do something.
  Knowledge of task environment Knowledge of the social and material context in which a task is undertaken.
Skills Skills An ability or proficiency acquired through practice.
  Skills development The gradual acquisition or advancement through progressive stages of an ability or proficiency acquired through training and practice.
  Competence One’s repertoire of skills and ability especially as it is applied to a task or set of tasks.
  Ability Competence or capacity to perform a physical or mental act. Ability may be either learned or unlearned.
  Interpersonal skills An aptitude enabling a person to carry on effective relationships with others, such as ability to cooperate, to assume appropriate relationships with others or to exhibit adequate flexibility.
  Practice Repetition of an act, behaviour or series of activities, often to improve performance or acquire a skill.
Social influences Social pressure The exertion of influence on a person or person or group by another person or group.
  Social norms Socially determined consensual standards that indicate what behaviours are considered typical in a given context and what behaviours are considered proper in the context.
  Group conformity The act of consciously maintaining a certain degree of similarity to those in your general social circle.
  Social comparisons The process by which people evaluate their attitudes, abilities, or performance relative to others.
  Group norms Any behaviour, belief, attitude or emotion reaction held to be correct by any given group in society.
  Social support The apperception or provision of assistance or comfort to others, typically in order to help them to cope with a variety of biological, psychological or social stressors. Support may arise from interpersonal relationships in an individual’s social network, involving friends, neighbours, religious institutions, colleagues, caregivers or support groups.
  Power The capacity to influence others, even when they try to resist this influence.
  Intergroup conflict Disagreement or confrontation between two or more groups and their members. This may involve physical violence, interpersonal discord, or psychological tension.
  Alienation Estrangement from one’s social group; a deep seated sense of dissatisfaction with one’s personal experiences that can be a source of lack of trust in one’s social or physical environment or in oneself; the feeling of separation between one’s thoughts and feelings.
  Group identity The set of behaviour or personal characteristics by which an individual is recognisable (and portrays) as a member of a group.
  Modelling In developmental psychology, the process by which one or more individuals or other entities serve as examples (models) that a child will copy.
Social/ professional role and identity Professional identity The characteristics by which an individual is recognised relating to, or connected with, or benefitting, a particular profession.
  Professional role The behaviour considered appropriate for a particular kind of work or social position.
  Social identity The set of behaviours or personal characteristics by which an individual is recognisable [and portrays] as a member of a social group, relating to, or connected with or benefitting a particular profession
  Identity An individual’s sense of self defined by (a) a set of physical and psychological characteristics that is not wholly shared with any other person and (b) a range of social and interpersonal affiliations (e.g. social roles).
  Professional boundaries The bounds or limits relating to, or connected with, a particular profession or calling.
  Professional confidence An individual’s beliefs in his or her repertoire of skills and ability as it is applied to tasks or set of tasks.
  Group identity The set of behaviours or personal characteristics by which an individual is recognisable [and portrays] as a member of a group.
  Leadership The process involved in leading others, including organising directing, coordinating and motivating their efforts toward achievement of certain group or organisational goals.
Beliefs about consequences Beliefs The thing one believed in, the proposition or set of propositions held true.
  Outcome expectancies Cognitive, emotional, behavioural and affective outcomes that are assumed to be associated with future or intended behaviours. These assumed outcomes can either promote or inhibit future behaviour.
  Characteristics of outcome expectancies Characteristics of the cognitive, emotional and behavioural outcomes that individuals believe are associated with future or intended behaviours and that are either believed to promote or inhibit these behaviours. These include whether they are sanctions/rewards, proximal/distal, valued/not valued, probable/improbable, salient/not salient, perceived risks or threats.
Reinforcement Anticipated regret A sense of the negative consequences of a decision that influences the choice made; for example, an individual may decide not to make an investment because of the feelings associated with an imagined loss.
  Consequence An outcome of behaviour in a given situation.
  Rewards Return or recompense, made to or received by a person contingent on some purpose.
  Incentives An external stimulus, such as a condition or object that enhances or serves as a motive for behaviour.
  Punishment The process in which a relationship between a response and some stimulus or circumstance results in the response becoming less probable; a painful, unwanted or undesired event or circumstance imposed on a wrong doer.
  Consequents An outcome of behaviour in a given situation.
  Reinforcement A process in which the frequency of a response is increased by a dependent relationship or contingency with a stimulus.
  Contingencies A conditional probabilistic relation between two events. Contingencies may be arranged via dependencies or they emerge by accident.
  Sanctions A punishment or other coercive measure, usually administered by a recognised authority, that is used to penalise and deter inappropriate or unauthorised actions
Intentions Stability of intentions Ability of one’s resolve to remain in spite of disturbing influences.
  Stages of change model A model that proposes that behaviour change is accomplished through five specific stages:- pre-contemplation, contemplation, preparation, action and maintenance.
  Trans-theoretical model and stages of change A five-stage theory to explain changes in people’s health behaviour. It suggests that change takes time, that different interventions are effective at different stages, and that there are multiple outcomes occurring across different stages.
Goals Goals (distal/proximal) Desired state of affairs of a person or system; these may be closer (proximal) or further away (distal).
  Goal priority Order of importance or urgency of end states toward which one is striving.
  Goal/target setting A process that establishes specific time based behaviour targets that are measurable, achievable and realistic.
  Goals (autonomous/controlled) The end state towards which one is striving: the purpose of an activity or endeavour. It can be observed by observing that a person ceases or changes its behaviour upon attaining this state; proficiency in a task to be achieved within a set period of time.
  Action planning The action or process of forming a plan regarding a thing to be done or a deed.
  Implementation intention The plan that creates in advance of when, where and how one will enact a behaviour.
Environmental context and resources Environmental stressors External factors in the environment that cause stress.
  Resources material resources Commodities and human resources used in enacting behaviour.
  Organisational culture/climate A distinctive pattern of thought and behaviour shared by members of the same organisation and reflected in their language, values, attitudes, beliefs and customs.
  Salient events/critical incidents Occurrences that one judges to be distinctive, prominent or otherwise significant.
  Person–environment interaction Interplay between an individual and their surroundings.
  Barriers and facilitators In psychological contexts barriers/facilitators are mental, emotional or behavioural limitations/strengths in individuals or groups.
Behaviour regulation Self-monitoring A method used in behaviour management in which individuals keep a record of their behaviour, especially in connection with efforts to change or regulate the self; a personality trait reflecting an ability to modify one’s behaviour in response to a situation.
  Breaking habit To discontinue a behaviour or sequence of behaviours that is automatically activated by relevant situational cues.
  Action planning The action or forming of a plan regarding a thing to be done or a deed.