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Table 4 Methodology papers of knowledge user engagement in knowledge synthesis

From: Engaging policy-makers, health system managers, and policy analysts in the knowledge synthesis process: a scoping review

Article, Year; Country Country income status, Context Information source Type of engagement Challenges to engagement Factors for successful engagements
Cottrell 2014 [46]; USA High-income, Applied research settings 24 articles, 34 Key informant interviews Wide variety • Additional time and resources
• Selection of stakeholders/achieve representativeness
• Reliability/consistency in participation
• Maintain confidentiality
• Manage and support stakeholdersOvercome tokenism
• Engage stakeholders early in the process to establish credibility
• Anticipate controversies in stakeholder opinions
• Ensure transparency and accountability
Guise 2013 [48]; USA Low, middle and high income, Applied research settings 56 articles, 13 Key informant interviews • One-on-one interviews
• Focus groups
• Citizen juries
• Town meetings
• Workshops/symposia/conferences
• Ranking and Delphi/Nominal group techniques
• Lack of time on the part of stakeholders (busy)
• Lack of release time and compensation for members of the public
• Researcher need for quick response (time frame too short for community to weigh in)
• Stakeholder needs not met in previous engagement
• Engage stakeholders early in the process
• Clearly detail expectations (e.g., timelines, tasks)
• Maintain ongoing relationships to building trust and credibility
• Provide opportunities for people to ask questions before meetings
• Provide pre-meeting information materials
• Pre-meeting “icebreakers,” especially when engaging stakeholders with differing experiences/perspectives
• Include someone with similar training as the stakeholder can be helpful
• Respect and welcome all stakeholder opinions
• Follow-up presentation of results is important to stakeholders
• Be clear about the stakeholder roles, do not expect community members to do academic duties
• Be sensitive to the time constraints of all stakeholders
Oliver 2016 [47]; UK High-income, Various policy settings 18 Key informant interviews • Knowledge broker to facilitate conversations
• Advisory panel and Expert panel for consultations
• Lack of knowledge and understanding between researchers and policy-makers
• Considerable time required to negotiate review questions with policy-makers
• Researchers lacking experience with stakeholder engagementIdentifying appropriate stakeholder to engage
• Managing timelines, resources and costs associated with engagement
• Engage stakeholders early in the process
• Manage stakeholder expectations
• Maintain appropriate communication and transparency
• Face-to-face meetings were more successful than telephone calls (not formally evaluated)