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Table 2 Quality appraisal of included studies

From: Quality improvement initiatives for hospitalised small and sick newborns in low- and middle-income countries: a systematic review

ROBINS-I tool for non-randomised studies of interventions
Studies Bias due to confounding Bias in selection of participants into the study Bias in classification of interventions Bias due to derivations from intended interventions Bias due to missing data Bias in measurement of outcomes Bias in selection of the reported result Overall bias
 Agarwal et al. [36] Moderate Low Low Low Low Low Moderate Moderate
 Bhutta et al. [49] Moderate Low Low Low Low Moderate Serious Serious
 Cavicchiolo et al. [58] Moderate Low Low Low Low Moderate Moderate Moderate
 Clark et al. [50] Serious Low Low Low Low Low Moderate Serious
 Crouse et al. [38] Moderate Low Low Low Serious Low Moderate Serious
 Darmstadt et al. [51] Moderate Low Low Low No info Low Moderate Moderate
 Dos Santos et al. [47] Serious NI Serious Low Low Serious Moderate Serious
 Erdeve et al. [52] Moderate Low Low Low Low Moderate Moderate Moderate
 Gathara et al. [39] Moderate Moderate Low Low Serious Moderate Moderate Serious
 Gilbert et al. [53] Moderate Low Low Low Moderate Low Moderate Moderate
 Leng et al. [40] Moderate Low Low Low Low Moderate Moderate Moderate
 Mais et al. [41] Moderate Low Low Low Low Low Moderate Moderate
 Namazzi et al. [42] Serious Low Low Low No info Moderate Moderate Serious
 Pinto et al. [43] Moderate Low Low Low Low Low Moderate Moderate
 Rahman et al. [44] Moderate Low Low Low No info No info Moderate Moderate
 Ramaswamy et al. [59] No info No info No info No info No info No info Serious Serious
 Rosenthal et al. [33] Moderate Low Low Low Low Moderate Moderate Moderate
 Rosenthal et al. [34] Moderate Low Low Low Low Low Moderate Moderate
 Salehi et al. [45] Serious Low Low Low No info Low Low Serious
 Sethi et al. [54] Serious Low Low Low Low Low Moderate Serious
 Soni et al. [55] Moderate Low Low Low Serious Low Moderate Serious
 Srofenyoh et al. [35] Moderate Low Low Low Low Low Moderate Moderate
 UNICEF [37] No info No info No info No info No info No info Critical Critical
 Wrammert et al. [56] Moderate Low Low Low Low Low Moderate Moderate
 Yawson et al. [60] No info No info Low Low No info No info Serious Serious
 Zhou et al. [57] Serious Low Low Low Low Low Moderate Serious
 Zhou et al. [46] Serious Low Low Low Low Low Moderate Serious
Risk of Bias 2.0 tool for randomised studies
Studies Bias arising from the randomisation process Bias due to deviations from intended interventions Bias due to missing outcome data Bias in the measurement of the outcome Bias in the selection of the reported result Overall bias   
 Bastani et al. [48] Low Medium Low Medium Low Medium   
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