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Table 2 Implementation strategy summary description

From: The effectiveness of research implementation strategies for promoting evidence-informed policy and management decisions in healthcare: a systematic review

Study (author, year) Implementation strategy Theoretical framework Summary description
Dobbins 2009, [57, 9] Access to online registry of research evidence Dobbins framework Reference offered a link to a short summary and full text of each review
Tailored, targeted messages and access to online registry of research evidence Title of systematic review and link to full reference, including abstract sent via email
Reference offered a link to a short summary and full text of each review
Knowledge broker, tailored messages, and access to online registry of research evidence Knowledge brokers ensured relevant evidence was transferred in useful ways to decision-makers to assist skills and capacity development for translating evidence into local healthcare delivery. Activities included regular electronic and telephone communication, one face-to-face site visit, and invitation to a workshop.
Title of systematic review and link to full reference, including abstract sent via email
Reference offered a link to a short summary and full text of each review
Beynon 2012, [46] Basic 3-page policy brief A simple theory of change for a policy brief Link to policy brief sent via email
Basic 3-page policy brief plus an expert opinion piece Same basic 3-page policy brief plus an expert opinion piece credited and written by a sector expert, Lawrence Haddad. Link to policy brief sent via email
Basic 3-page policy brief plus an un-credited expert opinion piece Same basic 3-page policy brief and expert opinion piece but credited to an unnamed research fellow. Link to policy brief sent via email
Brownson 2007, [47] Workshops, ongoing technical assistance, and distribution of an instructional digital materials Framework for a systematic approach to promoting effective physical activity programs and policies Workshops included: formal presentations, case study applications, and ‘real-world’ examples
Ongoing technical assistance included: strategic planning, grant writing, tuition waivers, consultation for effective strategy planning, and dissemination guidance
Digital materials included: additional information, prominent public health leader interviews, and resource tools
Courtney 2007, [60] Workshop The change book Pre-workshop completion of organisational readiness for change assessment.
Workshop included: conceptual overview presentations, personalised feedback, comparison with other agencies, and group work
Bullock 2012 [48] Fellowship program Programme evaluation framework (adapted from Kirkpatrick) Practicing managers work within research teams for the duration of a funded project
Campbell 2011, [49] ‘Evidence check’ rapid policy relevant review and knowledge brokers Van Kammen et al.’s approach to knowledge brokering Pre-meeting commissioning tool completed prior to knowledge broker meetings, which clarified research question. Then a rapid review summary of evidence on policy area is performed
Chambers 2012, [58] Contextualised evidence briefing based on systematic review Facilitators of the use of research evidence identified by a systematic review (Innvaer et al. [28]) Researcher attended meeting to clarify research question and prepared a concise evidence briefing on policy area
Champagne 2014, [59] Executive Training for Research Application (EXTRA) program Knowledge creation logic model Program included: residency sessions, projects, educational activities, networking, and post-program activities
Swift, Efficient, Application of Research in Community Health (SEARCH) Classic program Program included: modules, inter-module work, and application of knowledge to practice-based projects
Dagenais 2015, [52] Knowledge broker Theoretical models for understanding health behaviour Knowledge broker tasks included: liaison, information management and support, partner meetings, developing documentary research strategies, database set-up for relevant information, drafting summary documents, workshops, and developing and monitoring actions plans
Dobbins 2001, [61] Systematic reviews Systematic reviews of the effectiveness of public health interventions disseminated to public health decision-makers
Dopp 2013, [55] Multifaceted implementation strategy The model of Grol and Wensing Educational materials, educational meetings, outreach visits, newsletters, and reminders
Flanders 2009, [53] The Hospitalists as Emerging Leaders in Patient Safety (HELPS) Consortium Meetings on quality improvement methodology and substantiative patient safety-related topics, and a final half-day session drawing out learning’s and next steps
Gagliardi 2008, [56] Comprehensive review and workshop Author’s conceptual model of factors influencing effectiveness of knowledge exchange Comprehensive review of Canadian health services research in colorectal cancer based on published performance measures and workshop to prioritise research gaps, define research questions, and plan implementation of a research study
Kitson 2011, [50] Knowledge translation toolkit Team recruitment, clarification, stakeholder engagement, pre-strategy evaluation, training, support meetings, communication and feedback, process evaluation, dissemination (e.g. posters and presentations), future planning, and program evaluation
Moat et al. 2014, multi-national, [50] Evidence briefs Theory of planned behaviour Evidence briefs and deliberative dialogues across a range of issues and low- and middle-income countries
Deliberative dialogues
Uneke 2015, [54] Training, workshop, certificate course, policy brief, and hosting of a multi-stakeholder policy dialogue Workshop featuring training on the role of research evidence, preparation of policy briefs, how to organise and use policy dialogues, and how to set priorities. Certificate course aimed to foster research capacity, leadership, enhance capacity for evidence-informed decision-making, and health policy monitoring/evaluation. Policy briefs were produced, and the multi-stakeholder policy dialogue between key stakeholders was then held
Waqa 2013, [51, 62] Knowledge broker capacity building Knowledge coordinated organisation recruitment, mapping policy environment, analysed organisational capacity and support for evidence-informed policymaking, developed evidence-informed policymaking skills, and facilitated development of evidence-informed policy briefs
Wilson et al. 2015, Canada [64] Access to online registry of research evidence Framework for assessing country-level efforts to link research to action The ‘self-serve’ evidence service consisted only of database access
Access to online registry of research evidence, email alerts, and full-text availability The ‘full-serve’ evidence service included (1) database access for research evidence addressing questions about governance, financial and delivery arrangements within which programs, services and drugs are provided and about implementation strategies; (2) monthly email alerts about new additions to the database; and (3) full-text article availability