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Table 3 Typical Levels of Evaluation Required when Population and/or Delivery System Change

From: “Scaling-out” evidence-based interventions to new populations or new health care delivery systems

   SYSTEM
Domain
(mean, regression from Fig. 1)
Same Different
POPULATION     
Same   Scaling-Up Type I Scaling-Out: Population fixed, different delivery system
Implementation Fidelity (a, α)
Intervention Fidelity (b, β)
Reach (c, γ)
Adoption (a, α)
Sustainment (a, α)
Health Outcome (d, e, δ)
a = 1–2, α = 0
b = 1–2, β = 0
c = 1, γ = 0
a = 1, α = 0
a = 1, α = 0
d, e = 0, δ = 0
a = 2, α = 0
b = 1–2, β = 0
c = 1, γ = 0
a = 2, α = 0
a = 2, α = 0
d, e = 0, δ = 0
Different   Type II Scaling-Out: Delivery System Fixed, different population Type III Scaling-Out: Different Population and Delivery System
Implementation Fidelity (a, α)
Intervention Fidelity (b, β)
Reach (c, γ)
Adoption (a, α)
Sustainment (a, α)
Health Outcome (d, e, δ)
a = 1,2, α = 0
b = 1–2, β = 0
c = 2, γ = 0
a = 1, α = 0
a = 1, α = 0
d, e = 0, δ = 0
a = 2, α = 1–2
b = 2, β = 1–2
c = 2, γ = 0
a = 1, α = 0
a = 1, α = 0
d, e = 2–3, δ = 0–3
  1. Notes: Refer to Fig. 1 for definitions of Greek and Roman symbols