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Table 2 Research studies that have examined the implementation of eMental healthcare technologies, listed in order of publication date

From: Pediatric eMental healthcare technologies: a systematic review of implementation foci in research studies, and government and organizational documents

Author (year, country) Technology Implementation of technology Participants and setting Individuals studied as part of implementation evaluation
     Children/adolescents Parents Healthcare professionals Healthcare planners Healthcare policymakers
Hetrick et al.
(2015, AUS) [62]
Online monitoring tool of depressive symptoms, suicidality, and side effects (via iPad). Adolescents completed the tool once a week for up to 3 months. They could fill in the tool at any location with Internet access at any time with the exception of suicidal ideation items; these items were completed at the beginning of their regular treatment session with their clinician on an iPad.
Clinicians received a chart of scores after 4 weeks so that they could share with their patient and received an email regarding side effects that were endorsed for immediate action.
Adolescents, aged 14–24 years, receiving mental healthcare at the Youth Mood Clinic (YMC)
Mental health clinic
Reuland et al.
(2014, USA) [48]
CBM-I (Cognitive Bias Modification for Interpretation) Online intervention where adolescents were instructed to read and imagine themselves in 50 scenarios per session that were ambiguous in meaning until a word fragment near the end of the scenario resolved the ambiguity in a positive way (e.g., in a way inconsistent with socially anxious beliefs) Socially anxious adolescents, aged 10-15 years, and their mothers
No specific setting
Gonzales et al.
(2014, USA) [45]
Text messagea   Young people, aged 12–24 years, receiving outpatient or residential substance abuse treatment
Outpatient and residential substance abuse treatment programs
Gladstone et al.
(2014, USA) [49]
CATCH-IT: Competent Adulthood Transition with Cognitive-behavioural Humanistic and Interpersonal Training 14 online modules of Internet training to teach adolescents how to reduce behaviors that increase depressive disorders. Modules use CBT, behavioral activation, interpersonal psychotherapy, and community resiliency concept model. Young people, aged 14–21 years, with a general primary care concern
Primary care settings
Eisen et al. (2013, USA) [50] Primary care professionals and young people, aged 14–21 years, with a general primary care concern
Primary care settings
Iloabachie et al.
(2011, USA) [51]
Young people, aged 14–21 years, with a general primary care concern who had positive screens for sub-threshold depressive symptoms, and parents of those who were <18 years
Primary care settings
Fothergill et al.
(2013, USA) [52]
Online screener (via computer or tablet) 25 questions, that can branch into as many as 57 questions based on responses, regarding somatic and mental health concerns, general health risk, anxiety, and parental depression. The screener calculates scores for the validated scales it contains. A summary screen tallies the positive responses within broad categories and highlights scores for the validated assessments above the standard cut-offs Primary care professionals and parents presenting for a well child visit
Primary care settings
Branson et al.
(2013, USA) [46]
Text message Reminders sent the evening before each scheduled therapy session (e.g., “C u Wed @8”) Adolescents, aged 13–17 years
Hospital-based outpatient mental health clinic
Han et al.
(2013, USA) [53]
Toolkit on the MDPC Website Health questionnaire (PHQ-9), education material for patients, guides to diagnostic and treatment approaches, specialty care referral forms, slide presentation, training manuals, publications, cost calculator (investment savings for employers) Healthcare professionals using the MDPC website      
Salloum et al. (2013, USA) [56] Camp Cope-A-Lot: cCBT program for childhood anxiety within community mental health centers Therapist provides monitoring and coaching as the child completes the program. The therapist is present during program completion to answer any questions and build therapeutic alliance. 12 weekly sessions: sessions 1 to 6 focus on skill-building and sessions 6 to 12 are exposure-based sessions where the therapist provides direct coaching Children aged 7–13 years, with an anxiety disorder, their parents, administrators, study therapists
Community-based mental healthcare settings
Merry et al.
(2012, NZ) [64]
SPARX (Smart, Positive, Active, Realistic, X-factor thoughts) Interactive fantasy game designed to deliver cognitive behavioural therapy for the treatment of clinical depression. 7 modules delivered over a period of 4 to 7 weeks. A “guide” puts the game into context, provides education, gauges mood, and sets and monitors real-life challenges Adolescents, aged 12–19 years, seeking help for mild to moderate depressive symptoms that were assessed by a clinician as being fit for self-help and not being a high risk for suicide or self-harm
Primary care settings
Ahmad et al.
(2012, CAN) [63]
Computer-assisted interactive health risk assessment tool A health risk assessment tool that provides feedback to both the patient and the physician on psychosocial health. The tool considers the contextual details of the patient (e.g., violence, drug or alcohol abuse) Healthcare professionals (nurses, physicians, social workers, etc.)
Primary and acute care settings
Murphy et al.
(2011, USA) [57]
Electronic Outcomes Rating Form (e-ORF) in conjunction with a web-based patient tracking system The e-ORF is an electronic form filled out by parents of all intake patients using a digital pen. The form includes assessment tools (BPRS-C, CGAS). The e-ORF automatically prints outcome forms of routine paperwork for intake visit and follow-up forms every 90 days to reduce burden on the administrative and clinical staff. The digital pens have the ability to enter the assessment data directly into the hospital’s database Children and adolescents ≤18 years undergoing outpatient mental health evaluation
Outpatient child psychiatric clinic
Diamond et al.
(2010, USA) [54]
BHS (Behavioural Health Screen) Screening tool assesses risk behaviors and psychiatric symptoms in 13 modules. Patient completes the BHS in a waiting room, the report printed at primary care office, and the summary of assessment given to physician Adolescents with a general primary care concern
Primary care settings
Fein et al.
(2010, USA) [55]
BHS-ED (Behavioural Health Screen–Emergency Department) Psychosocial assessment tool designed for adolescents in non-psychiatric medical settings. Nurses or medical technicians logged the patient onto the website and registered them with a password and medical record number. The BHS-ED began with a slide and audio show that explained the rationale for the screening and the standard limits of confidentiality Adolescents, aged 14–18 years, without acute or critical injuries or illness, presenting with non-psychiatric symptoms
Emergency department of an urban tertiary care children’s hospital
Stallard et al.
(2010, UK) [61]
cCBT Focus was whether mental health professionals would consider the delivery of CBT via computer technology Mental health professionals
National conference, British Association of Behavioral and Cognitive Psychotherapy
Pretorious et al.
(2010, UK) [59]
Web-based CBT for bulimic disorders 8 interactive, multimedia sessions, electronic message board for participants and parents, and email support provided by therapist (flexible weekly support and advice via email) Young women, aged 16–20 years, with bulimia nervosa or atypical bulimia nervosa
Horwitz et al.
(2008, USA) [58]
CHADIS (Child Health and Development Interactive System) CHADIS provides access to 23 different questionnaires and asks parents prioritize their concerns so clinicians can plan agenda for the upcoming appointment Parents of children <8 years presenting for a well-child visit and pediatricians
Primary care and community-based mental healthcare settings
John et al.
(2007, USA) [47]
Personal digital assistant (PDA) decision support system (DSS) Screening questions supporting the PDA application: Short Mood and Feeling Questionnaire (SMFQ) and four additional questions, two related to family history of depression and two related to suicide Pediatric Advanced Practice Nursing students treating children aged 8 to 18 years
University-based medical centre
Hanley et al.
(2006, UK) [60]
Online counseling services for youtha   Counselors
Online forum
  1. BPRS-C Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale for Children, CBT cognitive behavioral therapy, CGAS Children’s Global Assessment Scale, PHQ-9 Patient Health Questionnaire, SPARX Smart, Positive, Active, Realistic, X-factor thoughts, cCBT computerized cognitive behavioral therapy, NR Not reported
  2. aIntervention features are not reported as the study focused on identifying features to develop the intervention