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Table 8 Indirect effect of potential mediators on maternal care outcomes

From: Understanding causal pathways within health systems policy evaluation through mediation analysis: an application to payment for performance (P4P) in Tanzania

  Facility-based delivery (% change) Public facility delivery (% change)
Effect of P4P without mediators
Total effect 7.9*** 7.4**
(Confidence Interval) (2.4; 13.3) (0.9; 13.9)
Indirect effect of P4P on outcome through mediators
Oxytocin injection stock-out 3.9 5.0
Indirect effect (coefficient interaction) 0.024 0.030
Confidence interval (−0.00; 0.138) (−0.083; 0.143)
Percentage of total effect   
Health worker kindness
Indirect effect (coefficient interaction) 0.1  
Confidence interval (−0.019; 0.020)  
Percentage of total effect   
Percentage of women who paid for delivery in a HF
Indirect effect (coefficient interaction)   2.3
Confidence interval   (0.4; 4.9)
Percentage of total effect   31.1
  1. 95% confidence intervals in parentheses; percent sign (%) indicates percentage points change; bold font indicates identified mediators *p < 0.10; **p < 0.05; ***p < 0.01