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Table 1 Setting, sample, and characteristics of the innovation being assessed

From: Psychometric properties of implementation measures for public health and community settings and mapping of constructs against the Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research: a systematic review




Characteristics of the innovation being assessed

Sample size

Response rate

Gender and profession of participants (Standard 1.8)a


Adopter Characteristics Scale [43]


Schools in Texas (number not reported)

Adoption and use of a classroom educational programme for tobacco prevention

n = 131

54 %

Second grade teachers

Awareness and Concern Instrument [51]


School districts in North Carolina with at least two junior high or middle schools (n = 21)

Awareness, concern, and interest in adopting and implementing tobacco prevention the curricula

n = 917

Not reported

Central office administrators

Principals Teachers

Health Teaching Self-Efficacy (HTSE) Scale [47]


Schools in the Region IV district of the Texas Education Agency (number not reported)

Ability to implement health teaching in the classroom

n = 31

Not reported

Junior high teachers Senior high teachers

Index of Inter-professional Team Collaboration-Expanded School Mental Health (IITC-ESMH) [50]


Schools across the USA (number not reported)

Level of inter-professional collaboration occurring to implement learning support and mental health promotion strategies in schools

n = 436

Not reported

Female = 88 %

School-employed mental health workers (e.g. school counsellors)

Community-based mental health workers (e.g. clinical psychologists)

School nurses


McKinney-Vento Act Implementation Scale (MVAIS) [40]


Illinois Association of School Social Workers annual conference

Perceived knowledge and awareness regarding implementation of the McKinney-Vento Act

n = 201

40 %

Female = 92 %

School social workers

Organisational Climate Instrument [51]


School districts in North Carolina with at least two junior high or middle schools (n = 21)

Perceptions regarding the organisational climate in schools adopting tobacco prevention curricula

n = 910

Not reported

Central office administrators



Perceived Attributes of the Healthy Schools Approach Scale [42]


Schools in Quebec (n = 107)

Perceived attributes of a health promoting school initiative

n = 141

28 %

Female = 62 %


School health promotion delegates

Policy Characteristics Scale [52]


Flemish secondary schools, including community schools, and subsidised public and private schools (n = 37)

Perceptions of a new teacher evaluation policy

n = 347

82 %

Female = 58 %


Role-Efficacy Belief Instrument (REBI) [45]


Schools in a state recently mandating sexuality education (number not reported)

Role-efficacy related to the successful implementation of a mandated sexuality curriculum

n = 123

Not reported

Female = 67 %

County-level curriculum coordinators

Rogers’s Adoption Questionnaire [51]


School districts in North Carolina with at least two junior high or middle schools (n = 21)

Perceptions regarding the characteristics of three different tobacco prevention curricula

n = 251

Not reported

Central office administrators


School Wellness Policy Instrument (WPI) [48]


Public elementary schools in Mississippi (n = 30)

Acceptance and implementation of nutrition competencies as part of a school wellness policy

n = 947

34 %


School-level Environment Questionnaire—South Africa (SLEQ-SA) [38]

South Africa

Secondary schools in the Limpopo Province (n = 54)

Perceptions of the school-level environment with regard to the implementation of outcomes-based education

n = 403

Not reported


School Success Profile—Learning Organisation (SSP-LO) Measure [39]


Public middle schools in North Carolina (n = 11)

Perceptions of organisational learning as part of an evaluation of the effectiveness and sustainability of the School Success Profile Intervention Package

n = 766

80 %



Teacher assistants


Other employees (e.g. cafeteria workers)

School Readiness for Reforms—Leader Questionnaire (SRR-LQ) [41]


Elementary, middle, and high schools in nine districts from South-west Florida (n = 169)

Perceptions regarding school readiness for the implementation of reforms including standards-based testing

n = 167

99 %

Leaders from elementary schools (e.g. principals, assistant principals, curriculum specialists)

Leaders from high schools

Leaders from middle schools

School-wide Universal Behaviour Sustainability Index—School Teams (SUBSIST) [46, 49]


Elementary, middle, and secondary public schools in Maryland, Michigan, Minnesota, New Hampshire, and Oregon who were implementing school-wide positive behaviour support (n = 14)

Evaluation of school capacity to sustain school-wide positive behaviour support

n = 25

Not reported

Internal school team leaders

External district coaches

Teacher Receptivity Measure [44]


Elementary schools in Texas (number not reported)

Views towards the implementation of the smoke-free class of 2000 teaching kit

n = 216

79 %

First grade teachers


Intention to Adopt Mobile Commerce Questionnaire [54, 55]


Private institutions of higher learning in Almaty and Astana (n = 3)

Intention to adopt mobile commerce

n = 345

51 %

Female = 50 %

University students

Perceived Attributes of eHealth Innovations Questionnaire [53]


Education providers including community colleges, state colleges and universities from across the United States (n = 12)

Perceived attributes of a technological innovation for health education

n = 193

84 %

Male = 53 %





Perceived Usefulness and Ease of Use Scale [56]


Business school at Boston University

Evaluation of usefulness and ease of use of two computer programmes

n = 40

93 %

MBA students

Post-adoption Information Systems Usage Measure [59]


University in the United States

Post-adoption perceptions of a self-service, web-based student information system

n = 1008

Not reported

Females = 53 %

University students

Social Influence on Innovation Adoption Scale [60]


University of South Australia

Attitudes towards adopting advanced features of email software

n = 275

15 %

Female = 64 %

Academic staff

Professional staff

Tertiary Students Readiness for Online Learning (TSROL) Scale [57, 58]


Metropolitan university in Australia

Readiness to adopt an online approach to teaching and learning

n = 254

52 %

Female = 65 %

University students


Facilitators of Practice Change Scale [63]


Australian community pharmacies (n = 735)

Facilitators of practice change with regard to the implementation of cognitive pharmaceutical services in community pharmacies

n = 1303

Not reported

Proprietor pharmacists

Employee pharmacists

Pharmacy assistants (including technicians)

Leeds Attitude Towards Concordance (LATCon) Scale [62]


Finnish community pharmacies (number not reported)

Attitudes towards the implementation of a new counselling model based on concordance and mutual decision-making between pharmacists and patients

n = 376

51 %

Community pharmacists

Perceived Barriers to the Provision of Pharmaceutical Care Questionnaire [61]


Community pharmacies in Xian, China (number not reported)

Attitudes and barriers to the implementation of pharmaceutical care

n = 101

78 %

Female = 82 %

Prescription checking staff

Quality assurance staff

Staff managers

Police/correctional facilities

Perceptions of Organisational Readiness for Change [65]


Juvenile justice offices (n = 12)

Perceptions of organisational readiness to implement an innovation consisting of screening, assessment, and referral strategies

n = 231

Not reported

Female = 58 %



Front-line supervisors

Receptivity to Organisational Change Questionnaire [64]


Districts I and II of the Hillsborough County, Florida Sheriff’s Office (n = 2)

Attitudes regarding an agency-wide shift towards community-oriented policing

n = 204

98 %

Patrol deputies

Other sworn employees

Nursing homes

Intervention Process Measure (IPM) [67]


Elderly care centres (n = 2)

Assessment of employee perceptions related to the implementation of self-managed teams

n = 163

81 %

Female = 93 %

Healthcare assistants


Other health educated staff

Staff with no healthcare education

Staff Attitudes to Nutritional Nursing (SANN) Care Scale [66]


Residential units in a municipality of southern Sweden (n = 8)

Attitudes of nursing staff towards the implementation of nutritional nursing care

n = 176

95 %

Registered nurses

Nurse aids

Whole communities/multiple settings

4-E Telemeter [70, 71]


Education-related settings from 39 countries including elementary, secondary, university, vocational, and company training settings (number not reported)

Likelihood of using telecommunications-related technological innovations in learning-related settings

n = 550

Not reported




Educational support unit members

Technical support unit members


Attitudes Towards Asthma Care Mobile Service Adoption Scale [94]


General community

Attitudes and behavioura towards the adoption of a asthma care mobile service

n = 229

57 %

Male = 63 %

Intention to Adopt Multimedia Messaging Service Scale [69]


General community

Attitudes towards and intention to adopt multimedia messaging services

n = 112

Not reported

Male = 55 %


Electronics or IT sector employees

Education sector employees

Financial services, entertainment, media, government, health care, and law office employees

Systems of Care Implementation Survey (SOCIS) [68, 72]


Education settings, mental health services, family assistance organisations, child welfare services, juvenile justice services and medical services from 225 counties across the USA (number not reported)

Level of implementation of factors contributing to effective children’s systems of care

n = 910

42 %

Female = 72 %

Stages of Concern Questionnaire (SoCQ) [73, 74]


Elementary schools and higher education institutions in the USA (number not reported)

Concerns about innovations including team teaching in elementary schools and using instructional modules in colleges

n = 830

Not reported

Public school teachers

College professors


Teacher assistants


Other employees (e.g. cafeteria workers)

Telepsychotherapy Acceptance Questionnaire [75]


First nations communities in Quebec (n = 32)

Attitudes and perceptions of adoption and referral to telepsychotherapy delivered via videoconference

n = 205

77 %

Female = 70 %

Community elders/natural helpers

Social assistants/social workers

Nurses/school nurses




Social interveners

Community health representatives


Other workplaces/organisations

Adoption of Customer Relationship Management Technology Scale [88]


A national buying cooperative for hardware and variety businesses in the USA

Facilitators to adopting customer relationship management technology

n = 386

48 %

Owner-operators of hardware and variety businesses

Coping with Organisational Change Scale [83]


International organisations including Australian banks, a Scandinavian shipping company, a United Kingdom oil company, a US university and a Korean manufacturing company (n = 6)

Ability to cope with organisational change including reorganisation and downsizing, managerial changes, mergers and acquisitions, and business divestments

n = 514

71 %

Male = 91 %

Middle and upper-level managers

Data Mining Readiness Index (DMRI) [80]


Telecommunication organisations (number not reported)

Readiness to adopt data mining technologies

n = 106

43 %

Telecommunications employees

Group Innovation Inventory (GII) [78, 91]


High-technology companies, primarily in the aerospace and electronics industries (number not reported)

Attitudes towards innovation within groups developing new component-testing programmes, systems-level integration projects, engineering audit procedures, and failure analyses

n = 244

Not reported



Intention to Adopt Electronic Data Interchange Questionnaire [79]


Purchasing Managers’ Association of Canada (PMAC)

Intention to adopt electronic data interchange

n = 337

58 %

Senior purchasing managers

Organisational Change Questionnaire-Climate of Change, Processes, and Readiness (OCQ-C, P, R) [77]


Belgian organisations from sectors including information technology, petrochemicals, telecommunications, consumer products, finance, insurance, consultancy, healthcare, and government services (n = 42)

Attitudes towards recently announced, large-scale change including downsizing, reengineering, total quality management, culture change, and technological innovation

n = 1358

Not reported

Male = 64 %

Organisational Learning Capacity Scale (OLCS) [76]


Human service organisations from a Southern United States city (n = 5)

Organisational readiness for change towards primary prevention, strength-based approach, empowerment, and changing community conditions

n = 125

50 %

Female = 79 %

Organisational Capacity Measure-Chronic Disease Prevention and Healthy Lifestyle Promotion [81]


Public health organisations in Canada including government departments, regional health authorities, public health units, and other professional and non-government organisations (n = 216)

Organisational capacity in public health systems to develop, adopt, or implement chronic disease prevention and healthy lifestyle programmes

n = 216

Not reported

Senior/middle managers

Service providers

Professional staff

Organisational Environment and Processes Scale [89]


Fortune 1000 companies (manufacturing firms, service organisations) and large government agencies (n = 710)

Perceptions of structures and processes related to the adoption of an administrative innovation (Total Quality Management) by Information Systems departments in organisations

n = 123

17 %

Senior Information

Systems Executives

Perceived Characteristics of Innovating (PCI) Scale [87]


Utility companies, resource-based companies, government departments and a natural grains pool (n = 7)

Perceptions regarding the adoption of personal work stations

n = 540

68 %

Executive and middle management

First-line supervisors

Non-management professionals

Technical and clerical staff

Perceived Strategic Value and Adoption of eCommerce Scale [90]


Small and medium-sized enterprises (200 employees or less) (n = 107)

Perceived strategic value of adopting eCommerce

n = 107

54 %


Perceived eReadiness Model (PERM) Questionnaire [85, 86]

South Africa

Business organisations in South Africa (n = 875)

Readiness to adopt eCommerce

n = 150

19 %

Chief Executive Officers

Managing directors

General managers

Directors of finance, IT, eCommerce

and marketing

Readiness for Organisational Change Measure [82]


Government organisation responsible for developing fielding information systems for the Department of Defence

Readiness for a new organisation structure that clarified lines of authority and eliminated duplicate functions

n = 264

53 %

Male = 59 %

Computer analysts and programmers

Technology Acceptance Model 2 (TAM2) Scale [96]

United States

Manufacturing firm, financial services firm, accounting services firm, international investment banking firm (n = 4)

Perceived usefulness and ease of use of a new software system

n = 156

78 %

Manufacturing floor supervisors

Financial services workers

Accounting services workers

Investment banking workers

Total Quality Management (TQM) and Culture Survey [92]


Manufacturing firm, non-profit service agency, university (n = 3)

Perceived organisational culture and implementation of total quality management practices

n = 886

95 %

Manufacturing firm employees

Non-profit service agency employees

Government employees

Service agency employees

Educational institute employees

Worksite Health Promotion Capacity Instrument (WHPCI) [84]


Information and communication technology companies in Germany (n = 522)

Willingness and capacity to implement worksite health promotion activities

n = 522

21 %

Managing director/board of directors

Division head/senior department head

Department head

Human resources manager/director


Assistant to executive management

  1. a Standard 1.8—Describe the composition of the sample from which validity evidence is obtained, including relevant sociodemographic characteristics [25]