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Table 2 Summary of findings of factors important for the implementation of e-health

From: Factors that influence the implementation of e-health: a systematic review of systematic reviews (an update)

CFIR construct CFIR component CFIR sub-component Sources e-Health domain
MS CS CD IS RS
Innovation characteristics Innovation source   [16, 18] x     
Evidence strength and quality   [17, 18, 20, 22, 25, 53, 57] x x    x
Relative advantage   [17, 25, 31, 34, 38, 43, 49, 51, 57]   x x x x
Adaptability   [16, 18, 21, 22, 24, 25, 27, 28, 34, 35, 38, 39, 41, 4850, 52, 53, 58] x x x x x
Trialability   [41, 51] x x    
Complexity   [18, 27, 28, 34, 38, 40, 41, 43, 45, 49, 52, 53, 55] x   x x x
Design quality and packaging   [18, 36, 43, 58] x   x   x
Cost   [1520, 2225, 27, 28, 3033, 3639, 41, 43, 47, 49, 5154, 57] x x x x x
Outer setting Patient needs and resources   [31, 33, 38, 41, 51] x x x   
Cosmopolitanism   [22, 51]   x    
Peer pressure   No data      
External policy and incentives   [1620, 24, 28, 30, 31, 33, 36, 37, 39, 48, 49, 51] x x x   x
Inner setting Structural characteristics   [18, 27, 37, 44, 49, 52, 57, 58] x x    x
Networks and communications   [21, 22, 33, 37, 39, 49, 50, 58] x x    x
Culture   [22, 23, 34, 36, 46, 49, 54] x x x   x
Implementation climate        
  Tension for change No data      
Compatibility [1518, 20, 21, 23, 25, 27, 28, 31, 33, 36, 37, 40, 41, 43, 4650, 52, 5559, 61] x x x   x
Relative priority No data      
Organisational incentives and rewards [17, 18, 37, 43] x x x   x
Goals and feedback [29, 37, 48, 50, 54, 58] x   x   x
Learning climate No data      
Readiness for implementation [27, 3133, 44, 54, 58] x x    x
Leadership engagement [18, 24, 25, 37, 43, 50, 53, 54, 56, 58] x   x   x
Available resources [17, 18, 25, 28, 31, 34, 37, 39, 41, 45, 4951, 53] x x x   x
Access to knowledge and information [15, 16, 18, 20, 21, 23, 25, 28, 31, 37, 39, 41, 43, 45, 4958] x x x   x
Characteristics of individuals Knowledge and beliefs about the intervention   [16, 18, 2025, 27, 28, 3034, 3739, 41, 4347, 49, 5154, 56, 57] x x x x x
Self-efficacy   [27] x     
Individual stage of change   [3133, 44]   x    
Individual identification with organisation   [54, 57] x     x
Other personal attributes   [16, 18, 23, 25, 28, 34, 36, 37, 41, 43, 46, 52, 56, 57] x   x   x
Process Planning   [16, 18, 24, 27, 3133, 3941, 43, 44, 4951] x x x   x
Engaging   [21, 31, 37, 50, 54] x x    x
  Opinion leaders [21, 25, 34, 37, 41, 58] x   x   x
  Formally appointed internal implementation leaders [18, 27, 32, 39, 44] x x    
  Champions [18, 20, 25, 29, 31, 32, 36, 37, 39, 51, 54, 58] x x    x
  External change agents No data      
  Key stakeholders (Healthcare professional) [16, 20, 28, 29, 34, 41, 44, 4951, 5356, 58] x x x   x
  Innovation participants (patients) [20]   x    
Executing   No data      
Reflecting and evaluating   [16, 24, 29, 31, 34, 41, 43, 48, 50, 51, 53] x x x   x
  1. MS management systems, CS communication systems, CD clinical decision support systems, IS information systems, R range systems from different e-health domains