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Table 3 Characteristics of studies included in the review and reported aspects of the ToC process

From: Using theory of change to design and evaluate public health interventions: a systematic review

Reference Location(s) Brief description of program Health outcome Development of TOC TOC in intervention development ToC in evaluation
Andersen, Nesman et al. (2012) [26] USA Tampa Hillsborough integrated network for kids: respite care for families with seriously emotionally disturbed children Reduction in caregiver burden X   
Andreas, Ja et al. (2010) [27] USA Peer community approach to prevent substance use and recidivism in men and women in recovery who have been incarcerated Prevention of substance abuse relapse X   X
AusAID (2010) [28] Papua New Guinea Strengthen sector wide response to HIV in Papua New Guinea Stable HIV incidence rate; improved care for people living with HIV/AIDS X   
Bacchus, Bewley et al. (2010) [29] UK Guidelines, staff training, inclusion of routine enquiry for domestic violence with all patients, and referral of women disclosing violence to an on-site advocacy service. Reduction in severity and frequency of abuse. Improved safety and access to resources X   X
Barton, Powers et al. (2001) [30] USA Promoting positive youth development for young people Reduction in drug and alcohol use, increase in immunisation rates    X
Basson and Roets (2013) [31] South Africa A workplace wellness programme for HIV affected nurses Positive health and well-being of nurses X X  
Bauer (1999) [16] USA Oakland Community-Based Public Health Initiative: a capacity and advocacy initiative for residents to impact on public health policy and training of public health professionals Nil specific X   X
Bauld, Judge et al. (2005) [32] UK Health action zones: a multi-area study in 26 local health areas aiming to identify and address the public health needs of the local area, to increase effectiveness and efficiency of services and develop partnerships Improved health and reduced inequality.    X
Beeston, Robinson et al. (2011) [33] UK A strategy for reducing alcohol related harm Reduced alcohol related harms X   X
Bhattacharjee (2013) [34] India A multipronged programme targeting sex workers, their partners and the community to increase condom use and reduce violence towards sex workers Increase in protected sex and decrease in STI/HIV transmission among sex workers X X X
Birkby (2001) [35] USA Community partnerships for protecting children initiative on child maltreatment consisting of 5 strategic elements including casework training, family decision-making, a hotline, community resource teams and substance abuse prevention and treatment Reduction in serious injury X   X
Bonner (2003) [36] UK Programme aimed at reducing drug taking and drug related harm Reduction in drug taking and drug-related harm among urban young people    X
Brown, Hawkins et al. (2013) [37] USA Communities that care: a manualised system for community coalitions to influence human and financial resources to address adolescent health and behaviour problems Reduction in adolescent behaviour problems.    X
Carr, Lhussier et al. (2008) [38] UK A walking group as part of the Positive Health Programme funded by the Neighbourhood Renewal Fund Enhanced physical fitness X   X
Carroll, David et al. (2005) [39] UK Workplace wellness program Improved well-being of women clothing factory workers X   X
Chandani, Noel et al. (2012) [40] International multi-country Medication supply chains for community health workers in Rwanda, Ethiopia and Malawi Appropriate receipt of treatment for common childhood illness; Availability of usable and quality medicines for appropriate treatment of childhood illnesses X X X
Cole, Hogg-Johnson et al. (2006) [41] Canada Workplace economic program Reduction in pain intensity and disability    X
De La Rosa, Perry et al. (2005) [42] USA A family based home visit intervention during pregnancy and after the birth of the first child Improved social support, caregiver behaviours, family interactions and decreased personal problems affecting parenting. X X X
De La Rosa, Perry et al. (2009) [43] USA A family based home visit intervention during pregnancy and after the birth of the first child Multiple including improved immunisation rates, connection with a medical home and maternal achievement of economic self-sufficiency. X X X
Dixon-Woods, Bosk et al. (2011) [44] USA An intervention in intensive care units to reduce central venous catheter bloodstream infections Decrease in intensive care unit mortality, hospital mortality, catheter related infections, ventilator associated pneumonia X   X
Dixon-Woods, Tarrant et al. (2010) [45] UK Safer Patient Initiative: introduction of patient safety into hospital management, culture and practice. Increased patient safety in hospitals X   
Goss-Power (2005) [46] USA VASE: a school for adolescents with emotional and behavioural disturbances Nil specific    X
Gray and Seddon (2005) [47] UK Two programmes aimed at children in “trouble” at school, truancy and risk of social exclusion. 1. “Kick it” Football Project which included mentoring and drug education, 2. The Salford Anti-Rust gardening project using mentoring using horticulture No specific health outcomes mentioned (mechanisms for change only) X   X
Gregor (2009) [48] UK Programme which enables partnership between public and third sector organisations to deliver awareness-raising programs Earlier presentation with TB, decrease in TC incidence Decrease in TB stigma, decreased barriers to access X   X
Henderson (2004) [49] USA A substance abuse treatment programme for homeless people Sobriety, improved medical health    X
Hernandez and Hodges (2006) [12] USA Interagency service planning for youth who had been arrested and involved in juvenile probation No specific health outcomes X X  
Illinois Caucus for Adolescent Health (2013) [50] USA A network of youth and adults who advocate within school, family and healthcare systems to support sexual health, rights and identities of youth Impacts school, family and healthcare systems in priority areas X   
Kemp, Harris et al. (2013) [51] Australia An ante- and post-natal home visiting program Multiple including improved pre and postnatal maternal health and increased engagement with services X   X
Knowlton and Phillips (2012) [14] USA A five-arm strategic funding model to improve food security for children in the USA Improved US food security X   X
Kreger, Sargent et al. (2011) [52] USA A network of coalitions and technical assistance programmes who use an environmental justice approach to reduce risk factors for smoking Healthier children and environments X X X
Levinson-Johnson (2012) [53] USA A system of care for youth with behavioural and emotional problems and their families Various health systems level changes X X X
Levison-Johnson and Wenz-Gross (2010) [54] USA A system of care for youth with behavioural and emotional problems and their families Not described X   
Lund, Tomlinson et al. (2012) [55] International multi-country Programme for improving mental healthcare (PRIME): district specific mental health care plans which are integrated into routine health services Not described X X X
Macfarlane, Greenhalgh et al. (2011) [56] UK Whole-scale transformation of stroke, kidney and sexual health services including human resource management Various including culture of health service and quality of care and service provision X   X
Mackenzie (2006) [57] UK Starting well: intensive home visiting services for families of new babies in 2 areas in Scotland Not described X   X
Mackenzie and Blamey (2005) [58] UK A multipronged heart disease prevention program Reduced coronary heart disease X   X
Mackenzie, Blamey et al. (2007) [59] UK Choose life: a national strategy to reduce suicide in Scotland 20 % reduction in suicide rates over a 10-year period    X
Mackenzie, O’Donnell et al. (2010) [1] UK Keep Well: a programme to identify those at risk of ill health and offered health checks and preventative services within primary and secondary care Decreasing inequalities in cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in Scotland    X
Mackenzie, Reid et al. (2012) [60] UK Keep Well: the programme to identify those at risk of ill health and offered health checks and preventative services within primary and secondary care Decreasing inequalities in cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in Scotland    
Maselli (2012) [61] USA A comprehensive system of care which avoids re-traumatising children and youth with severe emotional challenges Nil specific X X X
Mason (2005) [62] UK The Timely Tales: a community development and community arts project (part of a larger Health Action Zone Project) None described X   X
McQuiston, Choi-Hevel et al. (2001) [63] USA A culture specific programme to empower lay health advisers to promote sexual health and reduce sexually transmitted diseases Promotion of sexual health and reduction of sexually transmitted diseases including HIV X X  
Mookherji and LaFond (2013) [64] International multi-country Africa Routine Immunisation System Essentials (ARISE): using lessons from existing immunisations programmes that have achieved solid advances in immunisation Improved immunisation performance and equity X   X
Morilus-Black, McCarthy et al. (2012) [65] USA An integrated system of care for children and families experiencing social and/or behavioural challenges Improved care and referrals X X X
Reid and Botma (2012) [66] South Africa A programme which aims to expand public services to children with biomedical healthcare needs related to HIV Nil specific X   
Riley, Byng et al. (2008) [67] UK The Lewisham Depression Programme: a multifaceted programme which included marketing of the program, training and a depression recognition audit Not described X   X
Rivera, Martorell et al. (2011) [68] International multi-country A master plan for the improvement of nutrition in Mesoamerica Multiple including decreased mortality and increased maternal and child health X X X
Rodriguez, Betanzos-Reyes et al. (2011) [69] International multi-country A multifaceted strategic plan to eliminate malaria transmission in Mesoamerica Eliminating local transmission of malaria in Mesoamerica X X  
Scanlon, Beich et al. (2012) [70] USA Quality improvement alliance: to improve quality in the healthcare system Improvement in key community and population health outcomes X X  
Schierhout, Hains et al. (2013) [71] Australia A continuous quality improvement programme in primary health care centres Changes in delivery of guideline schedules services, focusing on diabetes and preventive care X   X
Secker, Bowers et al. (2005) [72] UK Preretirement health advice and services for people aged 50–65 years Nil mentioned X   X
Smith and Barnes (2013) [73] UK A whole systems approach to prevention of ill health Improved quality of life, reduced social exclusion and reduced need for acute hospital care for older people X   X
Suarez-Balcazar (2005) [74] USA A community intervention to assist community members in accessing health resources through the project’s home web page and the Internet. Nil specific    X
Tran (2009) [75] UK Provision of mental health advocacy delivered by a Chinese advocate with Cantonese and Mandarin skills Nil specific X   X
Tucker, Liao et al. (2006) [76] USA Community strategies driven by 40 community coalitions to eliminate disparities in racial or ethnic groups for priority health areas Reduction in health disparities X X X
Vander Stoep, Williams et al. (1999) [77] USA A family-centred system of care by community-based teams for youth with mental health needs Improved level of functioning for children X   X
Veerman, De Kemp et al. (2003) [78] Netherlands Families First: a home-based intervention for children with behaviour problems Nil specific    X
von dem Knesebeck, Joksimovic et al. (2002) [79] Germany Systems interventions to improve local coordination of health and social care Improved health care, health monitoring and health promotion    X
Walker and Matarese (2011) [80] USA A coaching, training and technical assistance model for wraparound Nil specific X X  
Weitzman, Silver et al. (2002) [13] USA Urban Health Initiative: a citywide multi-sector planning initiative Improved health and safety outcomes for children and youth X   X
Weitzman, Mijanovich et al. (2009) [81] USA Urban Health Initiative: a citywide multi-sector planning initiative Improved health and safety outcomes for children and youth X   X
Wenz-Gross and DuBrino (2012) [82] USA A which programme aims to decrease and prevent youths with serious emotional disturbance from becoming involved in the courts Various including increased youth functioning and behavioural adjustment X X X