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Table 2 Individual, social, and role-related/organizational characteristics of lay health advisors (n = 76) by activity level

From: Predictors of activity level and retention among African American lay health advisors (LHAs) from The National Witness Project: Implications for the implementation and sustainability of community-based LHA programs from a longitudinal study

  All LHAs (n = 76) Low/no activity (n = 28) High/moderate activity (n = 48) p value
Measure [possible range] Mean score (SD) Range Mean score (SD) Range Mean score (SD) Range  
Individual level factors        
 Religiosity [9–36] 33.7 (3.2) 18–36 34.4 (2.3) 28–36 33.3 (3.6) 18–36 0.12
 Racial pride [7–28] 24.2 (3.0) 10.0–28.0 24.1 (3.6) 10.0–28.0 24.2 (2.6) 18.0–28.0 0.92
 Medical mistrust [1–5] 2.2 (0.8) 1.0–4.0 2.2 (0.9) 1.0–4.0 2.1 (0.8) 1.0–3.7 0.87
 Discrimination in healthcare settings [0–3] 1.0 (1.2) 0–3 0.9 (1.3) 0–3 1.0 (1.2) 0–3 0.70
 Basic psychological needs scale        
  Autonomy [1–7] 6.1 (0.6) 4.0–7.0 6.0 (0.5) 4.6–6.9 6.1 (0.7) 4.0–7.0 0.64
  Competence [1–7] 6.3 (0.8) 2.6–7.0 6.2 (1.0) 2.6–7.0 6.4 (0.7) 4.6–7.2 0.19
  Relatedness [1–7] 6.4 (0.6) 4.4–7.0 6.3 (0.5) 5.1–7.0 6.2 (0.7) 4.4–7.0 0.82
 Life engagement test [6–30] 28.8 (1.4) 24–30 28.8 (1.4) 24–30 28.9 (1.5) 24–30 0.76
 Rosenberg self-esteem scale [6–24] 22.9 (1.5) 18–24 22.8 (1.5) 18–24 23.0 (1.5) 19–24 0.57
Social level factors        
 Number of Social networks [0–12] 7.4 (1.7) 3–10 7.3 (1.6) 5–10 7.5 (1.7) 3–10 0.55
 Total number of people in network [0—infinity] 50.5 (46.8) 13–272 44.0 (31.9) 14–146 54.2 (53.4) 13–272 0.37
 Social provisions scale        
  Overall [10–40] 37.5 (3.3) 26–40 37.5 (2.4) 32–40 37.5 (3.8) 26–40 0.99
  Guidance [2–8] 7.7 (0.8) 4–8 7.7 (0.7) 5–8 7.7 (0.9) 4–8 1.00
  Worth [2–8] 7.4 (0.9) 5–8 7.4 (0.8) 6–8 7.4 (1.0) 5–8 0.94
  Integration [2–8] 7.4 (0.8) 5–8 7.2 (0.8) 5–8 7.5 (0.8) 5–8 0.23
  Attachment [2–8] 7.5 (0.9) 4–8 7.6 (0.6) 6–8 7.4 (1.0) 4–8 0.46
  Alliance [2–8] 7.6 (0.7) 5–8 7.7 (0.6) 6–8 7.6 (0.8) 5–8 0.71
Role-related and organizational factors        
 Partnerships with other organizations        0.02
  Academic 54 71 15 54 39 81  
  Non-academic 22 29 13 46 9 19  
 Breast cancer knowledge
Mean score (% correct) [0–100]
84 (14) 46–100 79 (17) 46–100 88 (11) 54–100 0.008
 Self-efficacy        
  Overall [1–4] 3.7 (0.3) 2.8–4.0 3.6 (0.3) 2.8–4.0 3.8 (0.2) 3.1–4.0 0.04
  Skills [1–4] 3.7 (0.3) 2.9–4.0 3.6 (0.3) 2.9–4.0 3.7 (0.3) 2.9–4.0 0.06
  Growth [1–4] 3.7 (0.3) 2.9–4.0 3.6 (0.3) 2.8–4.0 3.8 (0.3) 2.9–4.0 0.06
  Collective [1–4] 3.9 (0.3) 2.7–4.0 3.8 (0.4) 2.7–4.0 3.9 (0.3) 3.0–4.0 0.36
 Leadership competence [1–5] 4.1 (0.5) 2.8–5.0 4.0 (0.5) 2.9–5.0 4.1 (0.5) 2.8–4.9 0.48
 Helper’s perception        
  Role benefits [1–5] 4.5 (0.4) 3.4–5.0 4.5 (0.4) 3.4–5 4.5 (0.4) 3.6–5.0 0.81
  Role stressors [1–5] 1.6 (0.5) 1.0–3.0 1.7 (0.5) 1.0–2.6 1.6 (0.5) 1.0–3.0 0.55
 Role expectations (clarity and commitment) [1–5] 4.6 (0.4) 3.2– 5.0 4.5 (0.5) 3.2–5.0 4.6 (0.4) 3.7–5.0 0.20
 Job satisfaction index [1–5] 4.4 (0.5) 3.4–5.0 4.4 (0.5) 3.4–5.0 4.4 (0.5) 3.4–5.0 0.92
  1. Program activity level was defined by the average number of educational sessions completed by LHAs per year. LHAs with low/no activity completed an average of less than two educational sessions per year and LHAs who were moderately/highly active completed two or more educational sessions per year