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Table 4 Novice, experienced and expert facilitators (adapted from [62])

From: PARIHS revisited: from heuristic to integrated framework for the successful implementation of knowledge into practice

Experience Focus of facilitation
Novice facilitator Working under the supervision of an experienced facilitator
Focus on:
What an innovation is; what evidence informs the innovation and how to assess and apply it
Readiness to change at a local level
What motivates individuals and teams and how teams work effectively
What context is; what impact context has on implementation at a local and organisational level
Identifying and engaging key stakeholders
Planning, implementing, measuring and embedding change
Experienced facilitator Working under the supervision of an expert facilitator
Focus on:
In depth understanding and knowledge of the organisation or organisations they are working with
Awareness of competing tensions and how to manage these in relation to implementing innovation and change
In depth understanding of individual and team motivation, team dynamics and productivity
Experienced and knowledgeable in local context evaluation
Able to assess system-wide activities and influence actions
Aware of wider contextual issues and confident in terms of negotiating boundaries and political tensions
Expert facilitator Expert facilitator operating as a guide and mentor to other facilitators
Focus on:
Coordinating and supporting networks of experienced and novice facilitators
Working with health systems to improve implementation success
Working across academic, service and other organisational boundaries to integrate facilitation and research activity
Developing and testing theories of implementation, innovation and facilitation
Evaluating implementation and facilitation interventions to generate newer knowledge
Refining and improving learning materials and mentoring processes
Running workshops and advanced master classes on facilitation approaches