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Table 2 Summary of quality assessment of methods and tools

From: A review of methods and tools to assess the implementation of government policies to create healthy food environments for preventing obesity and diet-related non-communicable diseases

Methods and tools Comprehensiveness Generalizability Relevance Feasibility Overall
Cross-sectional study using qualitative methods with secondary data collected using the WHO global questionnaire tool on assessment of national capacity for NCD prevention and control [4] L H H H M
Cross-sectional study using mixed methods with the INFORMAS Healthy Food Environment Policy Index [5, 39, 40] H M H M H
Cross-sectional quantitative survey using the WHO Global Nutrition Policy Review questionnaire tool [8] M H H H H
Cross-sectional quantitative survey using a policy checklist [38] L L M M L
Cross-sectional study using qualitative methods with the EU framework and 8 essential steps proposed by WHO [36] L M M M M
Cross-sectional study using qualitative methods with thematic matrix for guiding the interviews [42] H M H M H
Cross-sectional quantitative survey using Obesity Action checklist [44] M L H M M
Cross-sectional study using qualitative methods with interview protocol [45] L L M H L
Cross-sectional quantitative survey using the Audit Form [33] L L L M L
Cross-sectional quantitative survey using the Implementation and Measurement Guide of Recommended Community Strategies and Measurements to Prevent Obesity in the USA [46] M L M H M
Cross-sectional quantitative survey using scoring policy index system tool [48] L L H H L
Cross-sectional quantitative survey using the School Wellness Policies Implementation Questionnaire tool [49] L L L H L
Cross-sectional quantitative survey using the Healthy Schools Program tool [50] L L H H L
Cross-sectional study using qualitative methods with interview questions based on information from document review [51] L L H M L
Cross-sectional quantitative survey using the policy content checklist [52] L L M H L
Cross-sectional quantitative survey using the 96-item Wellness School Assessment Tool (WellSAT-96) [47, 54] L M H H M
Cohort survey using quantitative methods with adaptive CDC School Health Policies and Programs Study 2000 Questionnaire [37] L L H L L
Cross-sectional study using mixed methods with open-ended questions for interviews [55] L L M M L
Cross-sectional quantitative survey using the Local Wellness Policy Checklist [58] L L M H L
Cross-sectional study using mixed methods with open-ended questions for the focus group [60] L M M M M
Cross-sectional study using qualitative methods with the 2004 state semi-annual reports for 21 funded states [61] L L M H L
Cross-sectional study using mixed methods with questionnaire tool and list of key questions for discussion [62] H L N/A M N/A
Cross-sectional study using mixed methods with tool developed based on Australian core functions of public health as defined by the National Public Health Partnership [63] L L M M L
Cross-sectional study using qualitative methods with open-ended questions [53] L L H M L
Cross-sectional study using qualitative methods with interview template on policies and regulations on food marketing to children [34] L H H M M
Indicators for measuring progress in obesity prevention (method not indicated) [64] M L N/A H N/A
Cross-sectional quantitative survey using adapted WHO global questionnaire tool on assessment of the national capacity for NCD prevention and control in 2001 [56] M M M H M
Process, output and outcome indicators for of implementation of policies and actions recommended in the WHO Global Strategy on Diet, Physical Activity and Health (method not indicated) [65] H H N/A M N/A
Cross-sectional study using qualitative methods with open-ended questions [59] L L N/A H L
Cross-sectional study using mixed methods with questionnaire and interview guide and observation form [35] L L H M L
Cross-sectional study using qualitative methods with interview guide with broad open-ended questions with probes [43] L L L H L
Cross-sectional study using mixed methods with the Report Card on Healthy Food Environments and Nutrition for Children in Canada [41] M L M M M
Cross-sectional quantitative survey using Iowa Food System Report Card [66] M L N/A H N/A
Cross-sectional quantitative survey using tool developed based on the framework of Lester’s 1994 overview of the Australian food and nutrition system [57] L L M H L
Cross-sectional quantitative survey using the Political Commitment and Opportunity Measurement-Rapid Assessment Tool [67] L M M H M
Cross-sectional study using qualitative methods with the WHO framework to monitor and evaluate implementation of the Global Strategy on Diet, Physical Activity and Health [71] M L N/A H N/A
Cross-sectional quantitative survey using the 55-item State Policy Index [77] M M N/A H N/A
Cross-sectional study using qualitative methods with open-ended interview questions [70] L L N/A H L
Cross-sectional qualitative methods using interview and focus group guides [68] L L N/A M L
Cross-sectional study using qualitative methods with interview guide [72] L L N/A H L
Cross-sectional study using qualitative methods with open-ended questions, small prompts, probes and follow-up questions [69] L L H M L
Cross-sectional study using qualitative methods with discussion guide [74] L L L M L
Cross-sectional study using qualitative methods with interview guide [75] L L L H L
Cross-sectional study using qualitative methods with semi-structured questions [80] M L M H M
Cross-sectional study using qualitative methods with standard recommended focus group protocols [76] L L N/A H L
Cross-sectional study using qualitative methods with semi-structured questions [81] L L L H L
Cross-sectional study using qualitative methods with semi-structured questions [79] H L M H M
Cross-sectional study using mixed methods with questionnaire tool and semi-structured questions [73] L L H M L
Cross-sectional study using qualitative methods with open-ended interview questions [78] L L M M L
  1. N/A not available