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Table 2 Characteristics of the included studies

From: A systematic review of real-world diabetes prevention programs: learnings from the last 15 years

Year Author Study ID Country Setting Study population Sample size Study design Intervention
2003 Mensink et al. [35] SLIM Netherlands Unclear Adults at risk of T2DM 114 RCT 3 individual and 1 group session during 1 year + participants were encouraged to participate in the exercise program 3 times a year
2005 Kosaka et al. [62] Japanese DPP Japan Hospital-based Adults with IGT 458 RCT Detailed instructions on lifestyle were repeated every 3 to 4 months during hospital visits
2006 Oldroyd et al. [63] Newcastle lifestyle intervention UK Primary care Adults with IGT 78 RCT 12 individual 15- to 20-min review appointments over 24 months (6 in the first 6 months, 1 after 9 months and 5 at 2 monthly intervals between 12 and 24 months)
2007 Absetz et al. [41] GOAL LIT Finland Primary care Adults at risk of T2DM 352 Before and after Six 2-hourly group counselling sessions over 8 months
2007 Bo et al. [36] Italian Trial Italy Primary care Adults with metabolic syndrome 335 RCT 1 individual and four 1-hourly group sessions
2007 Davis-Smith et al. [39] DPP (church-based) USA Community (church) Adults at risk of T2DM 10 Before and after 6-session lifestyle intervention delivered over a 7 week period
2007 Laatikainen et al. [64] Greater Green Triangle (GGT) Australia Primary care Adults at risk of T2DM 311 Before and after 6 structured 90-min group sessions delivered during an 8-month period
2008 Ackermann et al. [65] DEPLOY USA Community (YMCA) Adults at risk of T2DM 92 RCT Sixteen 1 to 1.5-hourly small group sessions over 16 to 20 weeks and monthly large-group meetings
2008 Boltri et al. [66] DPP (church-based) USA Community (church) Adults with pre-T2DM 8 Before and after 16 weekly group sessions conducted over 4 months
2008 Payne et al. [67] BDPPI Australia Outpatient setting Adults at risk of T2DM 122 Before and after 6-week group self-management education program, 12-week gym- or home-based resistance training, and three 2-h group reinforcement sessions during 34-week maintenance program
2009 Kramer et al. [68] GLB (2007–2009) USA Community Adults with pre-T2DM 42 Before and after 12 weekly sessions (~60 min) and participants were offered the opportunity to attend monthly support meetings for 9 months after completion of the intervention
2009 Kulzer et al. [69] PREDIAS Germany Outpatient setting Adults at risk of T2DM 182 RCT 12 lessons lasting ~90 min each
2009 Penn et al. [70] EDIPS—Newcastle UK Outpatient setting Adults with IGT 102 RCT A 30-min session immediately following randomisation and 2 weeks later, then monthly for the first 3 months and every 3 months thereafter up to 5 years
2010 Almeida et al. [71] Colorado weight loss intervention USA Integrated health care organization Adults with pre- T2DM 1520 Matched cohort A single 90-min small group session
2010 Makrilakis et al. [72] DE-PLAN Greece Greece Primary care (workplace) Adults at risk of T2DM 191 Before and after 6 sessions (1 h each) held by a registered dietician in the groups of 6 to 10 persons
2010 Parikh et al. [73] Project HEED USA Community Adults at risk of T2DM 99 RCT A peer-led lifestyle intervention group, presented in a workshop consisting of eight 1.5-h sessions over 10 weeks
2010 Vanderwood et al. [45] Montana CVD and DPP USA Health care facilities Adults at risk of T2DM and CVD 355 Before and after (pilot study) 16 weekly group sessions and 6 monthly group sessions
2010 Vermunt et al. [74] APHRODITE Netherlands Primary care Adults at risk of T2DM 925 RCT 11 consultations of 20-min over 2.5 years, five 1-h group meetings and 1-h personal consultation with the dietician
2011 Boltri et al. [75] DPP (church-based) USA Community (church) Adults with pre-T2DM 37 Before and after 6 or 16 weekly group sessions
2011 Gilis-Januszewska et al. [76] DE-PLAN Poland Poland Primary care Adults at risk of T2DM 175 Prospective cohort 10 group sessions lasting for 4 months, 6 telephone motivation sessions, and 2 motivation letters sent to participant
2011 Katula et al. [77] HELP PD USA Community (various venues) Adults with pre-T2DM 301 RCT ~26 weekly group sessions for the first 6 months, 3 personalized consultations with a registered dietician, 18 monthly group sessions, and monthly phone contact for the last 18 months
2011 Kumanyika et al. [48] Think health! USA Primary care Adults with high BMI and weight 261 RCT Brief monthly contact with a lifestyle coach (LC) for 12 months and 10–15 min counselling sessions with primary care providers every 4 months. Bi-monthly sessions with LC for the second year
2011 Nilsen et al. [42] Nilsen et al. Norway Primary care Adults at risk of T2DM 213 RCT The individual and interdisciplinary group participated in a group-based program, 1 day (5 h per day) each week for 6 weeks
An individual 30-min consultation with a nurse or ergonomist completed the intervention 1 month after the last group meeting
2011 Penn et al. [43] NLNY UK Leisure and community settings Adults at risk of T2DM 218 Before and after A 10-week program of twice-weekly 1.5-h sessions, followed by ongoing support with regular mobile phone text message and email reminders, ‘drop-in’ activity sessions continued up to 12 months
2011 Ruggiero et al. [78] HLP USA Community (various venues) Adults at risk of T2DM 69 Before and after 16 weekly core sessions and 6 monthly after-core sessions
2011 Sakane et al. [79] Japanese Study Japan Primary care (workplace) Adults with IGT 304 RCT 4 group sessions of 2 to 3 h (for the first 6 months), individual sessions twice a year for 3 years. Between-visit contact by fax was also made monthly during the initial 12 months
2012 Costa et al. [40] DE-PLAN-CAT Spain Primary care Adults at risk of T2DM 552 Prospective cohort A 6-h educational program (scheduled in 2 to 4 individual/small group sessions), and regular contact by phone or text message for at least once every 6 to 8 weeks
2012 Janus et al. [46] pMDPS Australia Primary care Adults at risk of T2DM 92 RCT 6 structured 90-min group sessions. The first 5 sessions were at 2 weeks intervals and the final session was 8 months after the first
2012 Kanaya et al. [50] LWBW USA Community Adults at risk of T2DM 238 RCT The intervention was primarily telephone-based counselling (12 calls) with 2 in-person sessions and 5 optional group workshops over 1 year period
2012 Lakerveld et al. [37] Hoorn Prevention Study Netherlands Primary care Adults at risk of T2DM and/or CVD 622 RCT Six individual 30-min counselling sessions, followed by 3-monthly booster sessions by phone for a period of 1 year.
2012 Ockene et al. [80] LLDPP USA Community Adults at risk of T2DM 312 RCT 3 individual and 13 group sessions over a 12 month period
2012 Piatt et al. [81] GLB (2005–2008) USA Community Adults with metabolic syndrome 105 Before and after 12 weekly sessions over 12 to 14 weeks (lasted ~90 min) in the groups of 5 to 13 participants
2013 Jiang et al. [82] SDPI-DP USA Community Adults with pre-T2DM 2553 Before and after 16 group sessions in the first 16 to 24 weeks and monthly individual lifestyle coaching sessions
2013 Ma J et al. [38] E-LITE USA Primary care Overweight/obese adults with increased cardiometabolic risk 241 RCT 12 weekly group sessions (1.5 to 2 h each) in the first 3 months. From month 4 to 15, contact every 2 to 4 weeks depending on participant needs and preferences. Individual, secure email/phone contacts with personalized progress feedback and lifestyle coaching throughout the maintenance phase (month 4 to 15)
2014 Duijzer et al. [49] SLIMMER Netherlands Primary care Adults at risk of T2DM 31 One group pre-test post-test In addition to 6 individual consultations (in total 4 h per participant), on average, participants received 5.2 consultations by dieticians and 34.1 sports lessons
2014 Sepah et al. [47] Prevent USA Online platform Adults with pre-T2DM 220 Quasi-experimental research design 16 online weekly lessons. Participants were then offered to continue with a post-core lifestyle change maintenance intervention, with the entire intervention (core plus post-core) totalling 12 months
2014 Zyriax et al. [34] DELIGHT Germany Primary care (workplace) Adults at risk of T2DM 241 Before and after 12 weekly sessions (for the first 6 months), 6 monthly and 6 biweekly sessions (for the next 6 months). For year 2 and 3 quarterly 1.5-h sessions
2015 Savas et al. [44] IGT care call UK Primary care Individuals with IGT 55 Observational study A telephone service providing a 6 month lifestyle education program (20 min × 6), in addition to an introduction call (10 min) and action planning call (40 min)