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Table 1 Development of coding system using PIPE Impact Metric elements

From: A systematic review of real-world diabetes prevention programs: learnings from the last 15 years

PIPE Element Description Coding of the scores
Penetration Numerator: the number of individuals reached (invited) ≤33 % = low; 34–66 % = moderate; ≥67 % = high; or NAC (not able to calculate)
Denominator: the number of individuals in target population
Implementation Implementation was rated on 3 aspects. ≤33 % = low; 34–66 % = moderate; or ≥67 % = high
1. Frequency: the degree of contact (based on number, length, and type) over the first 12 months of an intervention. Different types of contacts were quantified based on the session type in the following way:
• 1 group/individual session = 1 session
• 1 group/individual session (>3 h) = 2 sessions
• 1 online/telephone session = 0.5 session
• 1 text/email/fax contact = 0.25 session
Numerator: total number of sessions (over the first 12 months)
Denominator: 22 (the US-DPP 16 weekly + 6 monthly = 22 sessions)
2. Duration: the duration of the intervention ≤6 months = low; 6–12 months = moderate; and >12 months = high
3. Fidelity: the use of standard curriculum (for example: the US-DPP) for the delivery of intervention and use of quality assurance measures to monitor the implementation of the intervention No standard curriculum followed = low; a standard curriculum was followed but no quality assurance measures were reported = moderate; a standard curriculum was followed and quality assurance measures were applied = high; or NAC (not able to calculate)
Participation Numerator: the number of participants enrolled in the intervention ≤33 % = low; 34–66 % = moderate; ≥67 % = high; or NAC (not able to calculate)
Denominator: the number of individuals reached (invited)
Effectiveness Effectiveness was rated on 3 criteria: ≤25 % = low; 26–40 % = moderate; >40 % = high; or NAC (where information is not provided)
1. Success criterion/proportion of successful participants:
Numerator: participants who achieved the main outcome (i.e. weight loss ≥5 %)
Denominator: total number of participants enrolled in the intervention/total number of participants completed 12-month measurements
2. Average weight loss: the average weight loss (in kilogrammes) ≤2.3 kg = low; 2.4–4.6 kg = moderate; >4.6 kg = high; or NAC (where information is not provided)
3. Risk reduction: diabetes risk reduction (absolute/relative) Risk reduction:
≤15 % = low; 16–30 % = moderate; >30 % = high; or NAC (where information is not provided)