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Table 1 Breakdown of practice-, provider-, and patient-level characteristics at baseline by step

From: A real-world stepped wedge cluster randomized trial of practice facilitation to improve cardiovascular care

Characteristic Step I Step II Step III Overall
Practice level
 Number of practices (n) 27 30 27 84
 Primary care model (n, %)     
  Fee for service 22 (81.5 %) 12 (40.0 %) 11 (40.7 %) 45 (53.5 %)
  Capitation—non-interdisciplinary 1 (3.7 %) 8 (26.7 %) 11 (40.7 %) 20 (23.8 %)
  Capitation—interdisciplinary 0 (0.0 %) 4 (13.3 %) 3 (11.1 %) 7 (8.3 %)
  Community health centers 4 (14.8 %) 6 (20.0 %) 2 (7.4 %) 12 (14.3 %)
 Rural practices (n, %) 4 (14.8 %) 4 (13.3 %) 7 (25.9 %) 15 (17.9 %)
 Baseline adherence score (mean, SD) 0.62 (0.20) 0.65 (0.22) 0.64 (0.22) 0.64 (0.22)
Provider level
 Number of providers (n) 57 78 47 182
 Female (n, %) 34 (59.7 %) 51 (65.4 %) 27 (57.5 %) 112 (61.5 %)
 Years since graduation from 2010 (SD) 27 (10) 23 (7) 25 (10) 25 (9)
Patient level
 Number of patients (n) 1667 1891 1734 5292
 Age (mean, SD) 68 (13) 66 (12) 67 (12) 66 (12)
 Female (n, %) 852 (51.1 %) 1003 (53.0 %) 851 (49.1 %) 2706 (51.1 %)
 Number of cardiovascular-related conditionsa (mean, SD) 1.18 (0.91) 1.17 (0.95) 1.26 (0.97) 1.20 (0.95)
 Number of cardiovascular risk factorsb (mean, SD) 2.67 (0.81) 2.82 (0.68) 2.79 (0.74) 2.76 (0.75)
 Rural residents (n, %) 436 (26.2 %) 440 (23.3 %) 774 (44.6 %) 1650 (31.2 %)
  1. aCardiovascular-related diseases examined: stroke, coronary artery disease, peripheral vascular disease, diabetes, chronic kidney disease
  2. bRisk factors assessed were age, hypertension, dyslipidemia, and smoking