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Table 2 Examples of equity-relevant trials and those with no evidence about health equity

From: Protocol for the development of a CONSORT-equity guideline to improve reporting of health equity in randomized trials

Type of trial

Example RCT

1. Provides evidence of effects in a population considered to be disadvantaged

A study of a classroom drama intervention for mental health of immigrant and refugee youth in special classes [58].

A randomized controlled trial of community-led interventions to prevent domestic violence in Aboriginal communities [59].

2. Provides evidence of difference or equivalence in effects across socially stratifying factors

A study of sex differences in platelet reactivity and cardiovascular and psychological response to mental stress in patients with stable ischemic heart disease [60].

A study of the impact of an informed choice invitation on uptake of screening for diabetes in primary care assessed whether there were differences in effectiveness according to socioeconomic status [61].

3. Provides evidence of a gradient of effects across socially stratifying factors

A study of individual- and area-level unemployment influence smoking cessation among African Americans [62].

4. Provides no evidence about equity

Efficacy of the transillumination method for appropriate tracheal tube placement in small children: a randomized controlled trial [63].

A comparison of cast materials for the treatment of congenital idiopathic clubfoot using the Ponseti method [64].