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Table 2 The concept of communication in implementation models

From: Hiding in plain sight: communication theory in implementation science

Implementation model Communication: explicit or implied? How communication is conceptualized and/or defined Theoretical underpinnings of the model
Dimensions of strategic change [68] Explicit Communication mechanisms are mentioned, but there is no definition. Competition and strategic change
A multi-level conceptual framework of organizational innovation adoption [69] Explicit Communication is conceptualized in several ways: as a marketing activity done by suppliers to influence potential customers’ perceptions; as a medium (i.e., communication technology or system); as an interpersonal process. There is no definition. Diffusion of innovations
A conceptual model for implementation effectiveness [37] Explicit Implementation climate instrument includes six items to measure communication, conceptualized as information exchange. There is no definition. Organizational behavior
Promoting Action on Research Implementation in Health Services (PARIHS) [35] Implied Communication is inferred in the element of context. Diffusion of innovations; organizational theories and humanism
A conceptual framework for transferring research to practice [70] Explicit Communication is mentioned as an element of the climate in which change is to occur, but not defined. Organizational behavior; diffusion of innovations
A conceptual model for considering the determinants of diffusion, dissemination, and implementation of innovations in health service delivery and organization [29] Explicit Several views of communication are provided. Mention is made of communication channels; interpersonal and inter-organizational communication; communication as a component of the diffusion process. There is no definition. Diffusion of innovations
Ottawa model of research use [50] Implied Communication is implied in several stages of the model and conceptualized as interpersonal process (e.g., adapting knowledge requires dialogue; lack of mutual understanding between disciplines is a barrier to knowledge use). Diffusion of innovations; planned action theory
Availability, responsiveness, and continuity: An organizational and community intervention model [39] Explicit Change agents are charged with facilitating communication, but no definition of communication is provided. General systems theory; diffusion of innovations; socio-technical theory; organizational theories
An organizational transformation model [71] Explicit Communication is identified as a factor necessary for successful change, but not defined. Microsystems; diffusion of innovations
Will it work here? A decision-maker’s guide adopting innovations [72] Explicit Communication is conceptualized in several ways: as information exchange; as an outcome (e.g., improved communication); as a skill; also, “bridge communication gaps.” There is no definition. Diffusion of innovations
A practical, robust implementation and sustainability model (PRISM) [51] Explicit Communication is conceptualized in two ways: as a bridge between researchers and adopters, and as a managerial activity to help convey sense of support. There is no definition. Diffusion of innovations; social ecology; chronic care model
A framework of dissemination in health services intervention research [73] Implied Communication is inferred by phrases such as “networks and linkages” and “flows of information.” Social cognitive and learning theories; organization and social change theories; agency theory; diffusion of innovations
A conceptual framework for transferring knowledge into action [26] Explicit Communication is mentioned as a common component of the knowledge transfer process, and conceptualized as information transfer, but not defined. Framework drawn from multiple theories
Normalization process theory (NPT) [33] Implied Communication is implicit in this theory which has interaction and group processes as foundational elements. Sociological theories focusing on social processes
An organizational theory of implementation effectiveness [36] Explicit “Persuasive” communication is mentioned but not defined. Organizational behavior
A model for large-scale knowledge translation [34] Implied Engaging, educating, executing, and evaluating interventions require communication. Not evident
Sticky knowledge [38] Explicit Communication theory is mentioned, and a link between knowledge transfer and communication is described (i.e., ease of communication). Communication gaps between the source and recipient of knowledge are mentioned. There is no definition. Communication theory; strategic management
A conceptual model of evidence-based practice implementation [40] Explicit Communication is described in two ways: as a product, and as pathways. There is no definition. Diffusion of innovations
Stetler model [28] Implied Communication is implied in the group facilitation required for research utilization. Planned action theories
Iowa model of evidence-based practice [28] Implied An assumption of the model is that working as a group is an important part of applying evidence in practice, which suggested the use of communication. Quality and performance improvement, organization and systems literatures
Dissemination and use of research evidence for policy and practice [28] Implied The model describes a process by which “decision makers engage in evidence-based decision making”, implying the use of communication. Diffusion of innovations
Advancing research and clinical practice through close collaboration [28] Implied Collaboration with interdisciplinary professionals to foster evidence-based practices implies the use of communication. Control theory and cognitive behavior theory
The Joanna Briggs Institute model of evidence-based healthcare [28] Implied Evidence or knowledge transfer requires communication. Not evident
The Knowledge-to-Action framework [28] Implied A key mechanism for turning knowledge into action is social interaction, which implies the use of communication. Planned action theories
The Quality Implementation Framework (QIF) [47] Explicit “Effective” communication is mentioned but not defined. Diffusion of innovations
The Tehran University of Medical Sciences Knowledge translation Cycle [48] Explicit Communication between producers and users of knowledge is mentioned; communication is identified as a skill and as a network. There is no definition. Not evident
Diffusion of innovations [49] Explicit Communication is defined as a process in which participants create and share information to reach mutual understanding. Sociological theory