Note: Categorization in multiple categories is possible.
Justification: Theory is discussed in the background/literature review/objectives section and is used to support study design/purpose. Intervention Design: Theory informed the intervention, either conceptually or by specifically influencing the design of the intervention. Pilot Testing: Theory was utilized to guide pilot testing of the intervention. Evaluation: Theory or constructs outlined in the theory were used to guide outcomes measurement or develop the evaluation strategy. Predictions: At least one stated purpose of the study is to test the influence of a variable predicted to be relevant based on a given theory. Post hoc: Theory is discussed in the discussion section for the purposes of supporting or explaining the results of the study.
*In 1 of the 13 studies that fell into this category, a specific indication of how the theory was used to design the intervention was not offered.