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Table 1 Comparison of the refined framework, closed sort task, and open sort task groupings

From: Validation of the theoretical domains framework for use in behaviour change and implementation research

Refined framework domain name and constructs (* = new domain) Closed Sort Task construct groups (constructs achieving p < .05a; in order of confidence rating high – low) Open Sort Task construct clusters (constructs in order of s(i) values decreasing;italics = constructs with silhouette value < .25)
1. Knowledge   
Knowledge (including knowledge of condition /scientific rationale) Knowledge (including knowledge of condition /scientific rationale) -No cluster representing Knowledge-
Procedural knowledge Procedural knowledge  
Knowledge of task environment Knowledge of task environment  
2. Skills   
Skills Skills Competence
Skills development Skills development Skills
Competence Competence Skill assessment
Ability Ability Ability
Interpersonal skills Interpersonal skills Interpersonal skills
Practice Practice Skills development
Skill assessment Skill assessment Procedural knowledge
3. Social/ Professional Role and Identity   
Professional identity Professional identity Organisational development
Professional role Professional role Organisational culture / climate
Social identity Social identity Management commitment
Identity Identity Professional role
Professional boundaries Professional boundaries Crew resource management
Professional confidence Professional confidence Leadership
Group identity Leadership Change management
Leadership Group identity Professional boundaries
Organisational commitment Organisational commitment Organisational commitment
   Professional identity
   Project management
   Champions / To champion
   Team working
4. Beliefs about Capabilities   
Self-confidence Self-confidence Self-efficacy
Perceived competence Perceived competence Perceived competence
Self-efficacy Self-efficacy Self-confidence
Perceived behavioural control Perceived behavioural control Perceived behavioural control
Beliefs Self-esteem Professional confidence
Self-esteem Beliefs Self-esteem
Empowerment Empowerment  
Professional confidence Professional confidence  
5. Optimism*   
Optimism   Optimism
Pessimism   Pessimism
Unrealistic optimism   Unrealistic optimism
Identity   Identity
6. Beliefs about Consequences   
Outcome expectancies Outcome expectancies Beliefs
Chars. of outcome expectancies b Chars. of outcome expectancies b Attitudes
Beliefs Beliefs Outcome expectancies
Anticipated regret Anticipated regret Chars. of outcome expectancies b
Consequents Consequents Illness representations
7. Reinforcement *   
Rewards (proximal/distal, valued/not valued, probable/improbable)   Rewards (proximal/distal, valued/not valued, probable/improbable)
Incentives   Incentives
Punishment   Punishment
Consequents   Sanctions
Reinforcement   Contingencies
Contingencies   Reinforcement
Sanctions   Consequents
8. Intentions*   
Stability of intentions Goals (autonomous, controlled) Stability of intentions
Stages of change model Intrinsic motivation Stages of change model
Trans. model/stages of change b Goal target /setting Trans. model/stages of change b
  Distal and proximal goals Certainty of intentions
  Goal priority Intention
  Intention Commitment
  Stability of intentions Intrinsic motivation
  Certainty of intentions Mods. of the intention-behaviour gap b
9. Goals*   
Goals (distal / proximal)   Goal target/ setting
Goal priority   Goals (distal / proximal)
Goal / target setting   Goal priority
Goals (autonomous / controlled)   Goals (autonomous / controlled)
Action planning   Action planning
Implementation intention   Implementation intention
   Representation of tasks
10. Memory, Attention and Decision Processes   
Memory Memory Memory
Attention Attention Attention control
Attention control Attention control Attention
Decision making Decision making Decision making
Cognitive overload / tiredness Cognitive overload / tiredness Appraisal
   Cognitive overload / tiredness
11. Environmental Context and Resources   
Environmental stressors Environmental stressors Conflict-comp. demands, conf. roles b
Resources / material resources Resources / material resources Barriers and facilitators
Barriers and facilitators Barriers and facilitators Environmental stressors
Organisational culture /climate Organisational culture climate Knowledge of task environment
Person x environment interaction Person x environment interaction Person x environment interaction
Salient events / critical incidents Salient events / critical incidents Control of behaviour, material and social environment
   Anticipated regret
   Past behaviour
12. Social Influences   
Social pressure Social pressure Group norms
Social norms Social norms Group conformity
Group conformity Group conformity Group identity
Social comparisons Social comparisons Social pressure
Group norms Group norms Social norms
Social support Social support Social support
Intergroup conflict Intergroup conflict Alienation
Power Power Social comparisons
Group identity Group identity Intergroup conflict
Alienation Alienation Social identity
Modelling Modelling  
13. Emotion   
Anxiety Anxiety Anxiety
Fear Fear Depression
Affect Affect Positive / negative affect
Stress Stress Stress
Depression Depression Fear
Positive / negative affect Positive / negative affect Affect
Burn-out Burn-out Burn-out
14. Behavioural Regulation   
Self-monitoring Self monitoring Learning
Breaking habit Breaking habit Review
Action planning Action planning Breaking habit
  Direct experience
  1. Key: a = after applying Hochberg’s correction for multiple comparisons within each domain, b - Chars. of outcome expect. = Characteristics of outcome expectancies; Conflict-comp. demands, conf. roles = Conflict - competing demands, conflicting roles; Mods. of the intention-behaviour gap = Moderators of the intention-behaviour gap; Trans. model/stages of change = Transtheoretical model and stages of change.