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Table 4 Support available for KTE, practices of health policymakers and stakeholders, investments and resources available for KTE, factors that influence the use of evidence in health policymaking and that influence health policymaking

From: Use of health systems and policy research evidence in the health policymaking in eastern Mediterranean countries: views and practices of researchers

  Total
N (%)
95% Confidence Interval
Agreed or Strongly Agreed with the following statements concerning the support for knowledge transfer and exchange in country/region   
Policymakers and stakeholders have access to HPSR through a network of researchers or academic institutions. 60 (46%) 36.91% to 53.59%
Policymakers and stakeholders have access to HPSR through a searchable database with an Internet connection within their organization. 59 (45%) 336.19% to 52.84%
Policymakers and stakeholders show little regard for the value of evidence. 56 (43%) 34.05% to 50.60%
Policymakers and stakeholders have the expertise for acquiring, assessing quality and local applicability of HPSR, and applying it in health policymaking. 40 (31%) 22.93% to 38.34%
Policymakers and stakeholders systematically access HPSR (i.e., regularly search databases for HPSR) in your country. 27 (21%) 14.34% to 27.93%
Agreed or Strongly Agreed with the following statements on use of evidence from HPSR by health policymakers and stakeholders in your country/region   
Lack of coordination between policymakers and researchers hindered the use of evidence from HPSR in the health policymaking process. 85 (65%) 55.46% to 71.58%
Policymakers and stakeholders consider that the available evidence has little practical policy applications. 52 (40%) 31.22% to 47.59%
Evidence from HPSR was not presented to policymakers and stakeholders in a timely manner and in a format that they can understand. 48 (37%) 28.42% to 44.54%
Policymakers and stakeholders do not use scientific evidence in the policymaking process whenever it is available and supplied to them. 37 (28%) 20.91% to 35.98%
Evidence from HPSR did not help health policymakers and stakeholders to identify and/or choose policy alternatives. 30 (23%) 16.28% to 30.37%
Evidence from HPSR did not help raise health policymakers and stakeholders' awareness on policy issues. 30 (23%) 16.28% to 30.37%
Policymakers and stakeholders consider that the available evidence lacks credibility. 19 (15%) 9.34% to 21.24%
Agreed or Strongly Agreed with the following statements on investments and resources available for the production and transfer and exchange of evidence from HPSR   
Funding sources (e.g., granting agencies) encourage knowledge transfer and exchange activities. 73 (65%) 46.41% to 63.09%
International funding is available for undertaking HPSR. 55 (50%) 33.34% to 49.85%
Funders formulate their priorities and calls for proposals in response to national and regional needs. 52 (47%) 31.22% to 47.59%
Regional funding is available for undertaking HPSR. 42 (38%) 24.29% to 39.90%
National funding is available for undertaking HPSR. 38 (34%) 21.58% to 36.77%
Incentives for knowledge transfer and exchange are available (e.g., performance incentives for knowledge transfer and exchange and proper criteria of promotion) within your organization 26 (23%) 13.70% to 27.10%
Policymakers and stakeholders clearly articulate priorities for health systems and policy research. 23 (21%) 11.81% to 24.61%
Policymakers and stakeholders provide adequate funding for priority research. 22 (20%) 11.18% to 23.78%
Agreed or Strongly Agreed with the following factors that influence the use of evidence in health policymaking in the region   
Use of evidence from HPSR in policy was hindered by insufficient policy dialogue opportunities, networking, and collaboration between researchers and policymakers and stakeholders. 72 (68%) 45.67% to 62.37%
Use of evidence from HPSR in policy was hindered by practical constraints to implementation such as financial implications. 70 (66%) 44.19% to 60.92%
Use of evidence from HPSR in policy was hindered by a non-receptive policy environment. 65 (61%) 40.53% to 57.28%
Use of evidence from HPSR in policy was hindered by findings that were politically sensitive or were inconsistent with a policy direction. 61 (58%) 37.63% to 54.33%
Agreed or Strongly Agreed with the following factors that influence health policymaking in the region   
Lack of coordination in governmental/ministerial relations across different ministries (such as the Ministry of Health, Ministry of Finance, etc.) hindered the health policymaking process. 82 (82%) 53.17% to 69.48%
Policy formulation is usually based on internal Ministry of Health discussions, donor preferences, and ad hoc process rather than evidence based processes. 76 (76%) 48.65% to 65.24%
There is insufficient information about how health policies are being made. 74 (73%) 47.16% to 63.81%
Lack of coordination in government/health provider relations hindered the health policymaking process. 70 (70%) 44.19% to 60.92%
Limited health funding exerted a strong influence on the health policymaking process. 62 (62%) 38.35% to 55.07%
Donor organizations (e.g., United States Agency for International Development (USAID), United Nations, World Bank, World Health Organization (WHO)) exerted a strong influence on the health policymaking process. 59 (59%) 36.19% to 52.84%
Values of governing parties exerted a strong influence on the health policymaking process. 50 (50%) 29.82% to 46.07%
Media exerted a strong influence on the health policymaking process. 47 (47%) 27.73% to 43.77%
Other countries' health policies exerted a strong influence on the health policymaking process. 43 (43%) 24.97% to 40.68%
Physician associations exerted a strong influence on the health policymaking process. 37 (37%) 20.91% to 35.98%
Public opinion exerted a strong influence on the health policymaking process. 32 (32%) 17.59% to 31.99%
Private health providers exerted a strong influence on the health policymaking process. 29 (29%) 15.63% to 29.56%
Private insurers exerted a strong influence on the health policymaking process. 27 (27%) 14.34% to 27.93%
Research about problems related to healthcare or health systems exerted a strong influence on the health policymaking process. 25 (25%) 13.07% to 26.28%
Other types of health professional associations exerted a strong influence on the health policymaking process (e.g., Syndicate of hospitals). 22 (22%) 11.18% to 23.78%
Nursing associations exerted a strong influence on the health policymaking process. 6 (6%) 2.08% to 9.49%
  1. HPSR: health policy and systems research