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Table 2 Items identified by the nursing team as impacting on person-centred pain management practices/patient care.

From: Developing the practice context to enable more effective pain management with older people: an action research approach

Elements of the PARIHS framework Action cycles identified by ward nursing staff Themes arising from reflective strategies. Themes merged through reflexivity and reflection on data.
Evidence (1) Communication (7) Lack of support (10)  
Context (2) Sub elements Culture (3) Leadership (4) Evaluation (5) Interruptions to nursing practice (8) Value of nurses/nursing (11) Threat (12) PSYCHOLOGICAL SAFETY
Facilitation (6) Pain assessment practices (9) Respect (13) Trust (14)  
   Time (15)  
   Oppression (16)  
   Power (17)  
   Distorted perceptions (18)  
   'Blame,' 'accusation' and 'criticism' (19) HORIZONTAL VIOLENCE
   Autonomy (20)