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Table 1 Outline of ethnographic study

From: Developing the practice context to enable more effective pain management with older people: an action research approach

Non-participant observation nursing practice (62 hours), patient interviews (n = 8), NWI-R questionnaire (Aiken and Patrician 2000):


Revealed pain management practices with older people were deficient due to:


Ely's thematic analysis (1991) revealed three potential action cycles:

   Limited/absent pain assessment.


Action cycle one: pain assessment and practice.

   Inflexible analgesic prescriptions.


   Limited use of non-pharmacological strategies.


Action cycle two: Organisation of care.

   Family and Physician opinion on use of analgesics.


   Fear of addiction.


Action cycle three: Knowledge and insight to deal with problematic pain.

   Patients not being believed.


   Patients having decisions made 'for' rather than 'with' them.