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Table 2 Summary of Findings

From: To what extent do nurses use research in clinical practice? A systematic review

Instrument First Author, Year Quartile 1 Quartile 2 Quartile 3 Quartile 4
   Low Use Moderate-Low Use Moderate-High Use High Use
NPQ (n = 12 articles) Brett, 1987 [26]    X  
  Brett, 1989 [50]    X  
  Coyle, 1990 [51]   X   
  Barta, 1995 [52]    X  
  Michel, 1995 [5]    X  
  Berggren, 1996 [33]    X  
  Rutledge, 1996 [53]     X
  Thompson, 1997 [54]    X  
  Rodgers, 2000 [27]    X  
  Rodgers, 2000 [55]    X  
  Carlson, 2006 [62]    X  
  Squires, 2007 [56]    X  
RUQ (n = 10 articles) Champion, 1989 [63]    X  
  Lacey, 1994 [71]    X  
  Prin, 1997 [83]    X  
  Hatcher, 1997 [68]    X  
  Hansen, 1999 [67]    X  
  Humphris, 1999 [69]    X  
  Tranmer, 2002 [91]    X  
  Wallin, 2003 [95]    X  
  McCloskey, 2005 [75]   X   
  Nash, 2005 [57]   X   
Other Multi-Item Measures (n = 5 articles) Pelz, 1981 [90]   X   
  Varcoe, 1995 [87]   X (general use) X (specific research findings)  
  Stiefel, 1996 [85]    X  
  McCleary, 2002 [73]    X  
  McCleary, 2003 [74]    X  
Single items Bostrom, 1993 [60] X    
Past, Present, Future Use (n = 4 articles)      
  Rizzuto, 1994 [4] X    
  Butler, 1995 [59]   X (staff nurses) X (leadership nurses)  
  Brown, 1997 [61]   X   
Single items Parahoo, 1998 [24]   X (specific research findings) X (general use)  
Parahoo Measure (n = 7 articles)      
  Parahoo, 1999 [78]   X   
  Parahoo, 1999b [79]    X  
  Parahoo, 2000 [80]   X   
  Parahoo, 2001 [81]    X  
  Valizadeh, 2003 [86]   X   
  Veeramah, 2004 [88]    X  
Single items Estabrooks, 1999 [29]   PRU IRU, CRU, ORU  
Estabrooks Measure (n = 6 articles)      
  Profetto-McGrath, 2003 [84]    PRU, ORU CRU
  Milner, 2005 [76]   PRU (staff) IRU (staff, managers) CRU (staff, managers) ORU (staff, managers) PRU (educators, managers) IRU (educators) CRU (educators) ORU (educators)
  Kenny, 2005 [70]   PRU IRU, CRU, ORU  
  Estabrooks 2007 [66]    IRU, ORU  
  Connor, 2007 [64]   CRU IRU, ORU PRU
Single items Linde, 1989 [89] X1 X2   
Other (n = 11 articles)      
  Walczak, 1994 [96]   X   
  Pettengill, 1994 [82]   X3 X4  
  Veeramah, 1995 [88]    X  
  Youngstrom, 1996 [98]    X  
  Wright, 1996 [97]    X  
  Logsdon, 1998 [72]   X   
  Davies, 1999 [99]   X5 X5 X5
  Tsai, 2000 [58]    X  
  Tsai, 2003 [92]   X   
  Niederhauser, 2005 [77]     X
  1. IRU = instrumental research use; CRU-conceptual research use; PRU = persuasive research use; ORU = overall research use
  2. 1 = Item: Discontinue practice based on research
  3. 2 = Items: (1) transfer knowledge from research; (2) use new research-based activity
  4. 3 = Use of nursing research
  5. 4 = Use of non-nursing research
  6. 5 = 23 practices assessed, extent of research use depends on the practice assessed