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Table 1 Level of use of theory within studies (including level of theory use)

From: A systematic review of the use of theory in the design of guideline dissemination and implementation strategies and interpretation of the results of rigorous evaluations

Theory Used explicitly Used with some conceptual basis Total
PRECEDE 3 8 11
Diffusion of innovation 0 8 8
Information overload 1 7 8
Academic detailing 0 8 8
Social cognitive theory 0 4 4
Theory of reasoned action 1 2 3
Social influence 0 2 2
Social learning theory 0 2 2
Behaviour modification techniques 1 1 2
Continuous quality improvement 2 0 2
Field theory 0 2 2
Cybernetic theory 1 0 1
Dual task theory 0 1 1
Elaboration likelihood model 1 0 1
Four-step intervention 0 1 1
Goals, Emotions and personal capabilities theory 0 1 1
Health belief model 0 1 1
Learning styles 0 1 1
Organizational development 1 0 1
Patient care appraisal model 1 0 1
Rule-based expert system 0 1 1
Shot-gun method 0 1 1
Stages of change 0 1 1
Treatment theory 1 0 1
Vividness criterion (human inference theory) 1 0 1
Total 14 52 66