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Table 3 Examples of studies reporting follow-up evaluation of implemented interventions

From: Measuring persistence of implementation: QUERI Series

Authors Design Intervention Intervention target Intervention length Outcome measured Post-intervention sustainability period
Knox et al., 2003 [46] Quasi-experiment, pre-post comparison Multi-component suicide prevention program USAF personnel (patient-level) 1 year Relative suicide risk factor rates 1 year
Harland et al., 1999 [47] RCT, pre-post comparison 1–6 motivational interviews, with or without financial incentive General medicine practice patients (patient-level) 3 months Self-reported physical activity 1 year
Shye et al., 2004 [48] Multi-faceted intervention trial, pre-post comparison (1) Basic strategy: guideline, education, clinical supports
(2) Augmented strategy: basic program with social worker added
HMO PCPs (provider-level) 10 months Rates of female patients who asked about domestic violence 3 months
Sanci et al., 2000, 2005 [49,50] RCT, pre-post comparison Multi-faceted adolescent health education program General medicine practice physicians (provider-level) 3 months Observer ratings of skills, self-perceived competency, tested knowledge 4 months, 10 months, 5 years
Perlstein et al., 2000 [51] Pre-post comparison Implemented bronchiolitis care guideline Pediatricians who cared for infants 0–1 year hospitalized with bronchiolitis (provider-level) -- Patient volumes, length of stay, use of ancillary resources 3 years
Brand et al., 2005 [52] Program evaluation COPD management guideline Hospital physicians (provider-level) -- Guideline concordance, attitudes and barriers to guidelines, access to available guidelines 2 years
Morgenstern et al., 2003 [53] Quasi-experiment, pre-post comparison Multi-component acute stroke treatment education program Community laypersons (patient-level); Community- and ED-based physicians and EMS responders (provider-level); Stroke care policies (organization-level) 15 months Number of acute stroke patients who received intravenous tissue plasminogen activator 6 months
Bere et al., 2006 [54] Controlled trial, pre-post comparison (1) Fruit and vegetable education program
(2) No-cost access to school fruit program
School-age students (patient-level) 1 year All-day fruit and vegetable intake 1 year
Shepherd et al., 2000 [55] Systematic review of controlled comparisons with pre-post analysis Health education interventions that promote sexual risk reduction in women Sexually active women in any setting, treated by any provider type (patient-level) Varied from 1 day to 3 years (most lasted 1 to 3 months) Behavioral outcomes (e.g, condom use, fewer partners, or abstinence, fewer STDs) Varied from 1 month to 6 months (most were up to 3 months)
  1. Note. To identify studies that measured sustainability, we searched PubMed for reports that included any follow-up analyses of interventions or program effects, using keyword searches for terms such as 'sustain,' 'sustained,' 'sustainability,' and 'follow-up.'