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  1. The continuing gap between available evidence and current practice in health care reinforces the need for more effective solutions, in particular related to organizational context. Considerable advances have b...

    Authors: Cheryl B Stetler, Lynn McQueen, John Demakis and Brian S Mittman

    Citation: Implementation Science 2008 3:30

    Content type: Methodology

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  2. Ischemic heart disease (IHD) affects at least 150,000 veterans annually in the United States. Lowering serum cholesterol has been shown to reduce coronary events, cardiac death, and total mortality among high ...

    Authors: Anne Sales, Christian Helfrich, P Michael Ho, Ashley Hedeen, Mary E Plomondon, Yu-Fang Li, Alison Connors and John S Rumsfeld

    Citation: Implementation Science 2008 3:28

    Content type: Research article

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  3. The persistent gap between research and practice compromises the impact of multi-level and multi-strategy community health interventions. Part of the problem is a limited understanding of how and why intervent...

    Authors: Barbara L Riley, JoAnne MacDonald, Omaima Mansi, Anita Kothari, Donna Kurtz, Linda I vonTettenborn and Nancy C Edwards

    Citation: Implementation Science 2008 3:27

    Content type: Research article

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  4. One strategy to enhance research use and change current practice is to identify barriers and then implement tailored interventions to reduce these barriers. In nursing, the BARRIERS scale has been frequently u...

    Authors: Anne-Marie Boström, Kerstin Nilsson Kajermo, Gun Nordström and Lars Wallin

    Citation: Implementation Science 2008 3:24

    Content type: Research article

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  5. How humans think and make decisions is important in understanding behaviour. Hence an understanding of cognitive processes among physicians may inform our understanding of behaviour in relation to evidence imp...

    Authors: Ruth M Sladek, Malcolm J Bond, Luan T Huynh, Derek PB Chew and Paddy A Phillips

    Citation: Implementation Science 2008 3:23

    Content type: Research article

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  6. Implementation of research into practice in health care systems is a challenging and often unsuccessful endeavor. The United States Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) Quality Enhancement Research Initiative (...

    Authors: Carolyn M Wallace and Marcia W Legro

    Citation: Implementation Science 2008 3:22

    Content type: Research article

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  7. As more quality improvement programs are implemented to achieve gains in performance, the need to evaluate their lasting effects has become increasingly evident. However, such long-term follow-up evaluations a...

    Authors: Candice C Bowman, Elisa J Sobo, Steven M Asch and Allen L Gifford

    Citation: Implementation Science 2008 3:21

    Content type: Debate

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  8. The United States (U.S.) Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) Quality Enhancement Research Initiative (QUERI) has implemented economic analyses in single-site and multi-site clinical trials. To date, no one has...

    Authors: Mark W Smith and Paul G Barnett

    Citation: Implementation Science 2008 3:20

    Content type: Research article

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  9. Children with emotional and behavioural disorders should be able to count on receiving care that meets their needs and is based on the best scientific evidence available, however, many do not receive these ser...

    Authors: Melanie A Barwick, Katherine M Boydell, Elaine Stasiulis, H Bruce Ferguson, Karen Blase and Dean Fixsen

    Citation: Implementation Science 2008 3:19

    Content type: Research article

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  10. Despite being a critical part of improving healthcare quality, little is known about how best to move important research findings into clinical practice. To address this issue, the Department of Veterans Affai...

    Authors: Sarah L Krein, Steven J Bernstein, Carol E Fletcher, Fatima Makki, Caroline L Goldzweig, Brook Watts, Sandeep Vijan and Rodney A Hayward

    Citation: Implementation Science 2008 3:18

    Content type: Research article

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  11. This article describes the process used by the authors in developing an implementation intervention to assist VA substance use disorder clinics in adopting guideline-based practices for treating depression. Th...

    Authors: Geoffrey M Curran, Snigda Mukherjee, Elise Allee and Richard R Owen

    Citation: Implementation Science 2008 3:17

    Content type: Methodology

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  12. We describe how we used the framework of the U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) Quality Enhancement Research Initiative (QUERI) to develop a program to improve rates of diagnostic testing for the Human I...

    Authors: Matthew B Goetz, Candice Bowman, Tuyen Hoang, Henry Anaya, Teresa Osborn, Allen L Gifford and Steven M Asch

    Citation: Implementation Science 2008 3:16

    Content type: Research article

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  13. Most patients with type 2 diabetes have suboptimal control of their glucose, blood pressure (BP), and lipids – three risk factors for diabetes complications. Although the chronic care model (CCM) provides a ro...

    Authors: Michael L Parchman, Jacqueline A Pugh, Steven D Culler, Polly H Noel, Nedal H Arar, Raquel L Romero and Raymond F Palmer

    Citation: Implementation Science 2008 3:15

    Content type: Study protocol

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  14. It is generally acknowledged that a disparity between knowledge and its implementation is adversely affecting quality of care. An example commonly cited is the failure of clinicians to follow clinical guidelin...

    Authors: Paul R Falzer, Brent A Moore and D Melissa Garman

    Citation: Implementation Science 2008 3:13

    Content type: Study protocol

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  15. The recent development and publication of evidence-based clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) for acute low back pain (LBP) has resulted in evidence-based recommendations that, if implemented, have the potentia...

    Authors: Duncan Mortimer, Simon D French, Joanne E McKenzie, Denise A O'Connor and Sally E Green

    Citation: Implementation Science 2008 3:12

    Content type: Study protocol

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  16. Evidence generated from reliable research is not frequently implemented into clinical practice. Evidence-based clinical practice guidelines are a potential vehicle to achieve this. A recent systematic review o...

    Authors: Joanne E McKenzie, Simon D French, Denise A O'Connor, Jeremy M Grimshaw, Duncan Mortimer, Susan Michie, Jill Francis, Neil Spike, Peter Schattner, Peter M Kent, Rachelle Buchbinder and Sally E Green

    Citation: Implementation Science 2008 3:11

    Content type: Study protocol

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  17. Human Subjects protections approaches, specifically those relating to research review board oversight, vary throughout the world. While all are designed to protect participants involved in research, the struct...

    Authors: Edmund Chaney, Laura G Rabuck, Jane Uman, Deborah C Mittman, Carol Simons, Barbara F Simon, Mona Ritchie, Marisue Cody and Lisa V Rubenstein

    Citation: Implementation Science 2008 3:10

    Content type: Research article

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  18. This paper presents a case study that demonstrates the evolution of a project entitled "Enhancing QUality-of-care In Psychosis" (EQUIP) that began approximately when the U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs' Qu...

    Authors: Alison H Brown, Amy N Cohen, Matthew J Chinman, Christopher Kessler and Alexander S Young

    Citation: Implementation Science 2008 3:9

    Content type: Research article

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  19. Continuing challenges to timely adoption of evidence-based clinical practices in healthcare have generated intense interest in the development and application of new implementation methods and frameworks. Thes...

    Authors: Cheryl B Stetler, Brian S Mittman and Joseph Francis

    Citation: Implementation Science 2008 3:8

    Content type: Methodology

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  20. Implementation of guidelines in clinical practice is difficult. In 2003, the German College of General Practitioners and Family Physicians (DEGAM) released an evidence-based guideline for the management of low...

    Authors: Jean-François Chenot, Martin Scherer, Annette Becker, Norbert Donner-Banzhoff, Erika Baum, Corinna Leonhardt, Stefan Keller, Michael Pfingsten, Jan Hildebrandt, Heinz-Dieter Basler and Michael M Kochen

    Citation: Implementation Science 2008 3:7

    Content type: Research article

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  21. Visit preparation interventions help patients prepare to meet with a medical provider. Systematic reviews have found some positive effects, but there are no reports describing implementation experiences. Consu...

    Authors: Jeffrey Belkora, Brian Edlow, Caryn Aviv, Karen Sepucha and Laura Esserman

    Citation: Implementation Science 2008 3:6

    Content type: Research article

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  22. Widespread replication of effective prevention programs is unlikely to affect the incidence of adolescent delinquency, violent crime, and substance use until the quality of implementation of these programs by ...

    Authors: Sharon F Mihalic, Abigail A Fagan and Susanne Argamaso

    Citation: Implementation Science 2008 3:5

    Content type: Research article

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  23. Local Ontario Early Years Centres (OEYCs) collect timely and relevant local data, but knowledge translation is needed for the data to be useful. Maps represent an ideal tool to interpret local data. While geog...

    Authors: Anita Kothari, S Michelle Driedger, Julia Bickford, Jason Morrison, Michael Sawada, Ian D Graham and Eric Crighton

    Citation: Implementation Science 2008 3:4

    Content type: Research article

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  24. Implementing change in primary care is difficult, and little practical guidance is available to assist small primary care practices. Methods to structure care and develop new roles are often needed to implemen...

    Authors: Lynne S Nemeth, Chris Feifer, Gail W Stuart and Steven M Ornstein

    Citation: Implementation Science 2008 3:3

    Content type: Research article

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  25. There is considerable interest today in shared decision-making (SDM), defined as a decision-making process jointly shared by patients and their health care provider. However, the data show that SDM has not bee...

    Authors: France Légaré, Glyn Elwyn, Martin Fishbein, Pierre Frémont, Dominick Frosch, Marie-Pierre Gagnon, David A Kenny, Michel Labrecque, Dawn Stacey, Sylvie St-Jacques and Trudy van der Weijden

    Citation: Implementation Science 2008 3:2

    Content type: Study protocol

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  26. The PARiHS framework (Promoting Action on Research Implementation in Health Services) has proved to be a useful practical and conceptual heuristic for many researchers and practitioners in framing their resear...

    Authors: Alison L Kitson, Jo Rycroft-Malone, Gill Harvey, Brendan McCormack, Kate Seers and Angie Titchen

    Citation: Implementation Science 2008 3:1

    Content type: Debate

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  27. African American and Hispanic women, such as those living in the northern Manhattan and the South Bronx neighborhoods of New York City, are generally underserved with regard to breast cancer prevention and scr...

    Authors: Sherri Sheinfeld Gorin, Alfred R Ashford, Rafael Lantigua, Manisha Desai, Andrea Troxel and Donald Gemson

    Citation: Implementation Science 2007 2:43

    Content type: Short report

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  28. We describe the use of a conceptual framework and implementation protocol to prepare effective health services interventions for implementation in community-based (i.e., non-academic-affiliated) settings.

    Authors: Amy M Kilbourne, Mary S Neumann, Harold A Pincus, Mark S Bauer and Ronald Stall

    Citation: Implementation Science 2007 2:42

    Content type: Methodology

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  29. Reviews of guideline implementation recommend matching strategies to the specific setting, but provide little specific guidance about how to do so. We hypothesized that the highest level of guideline-concordan...

    Authors: Lee A Green, Leon Wyszewianski, Julie C Lowery, Christine P Kowalski and Sarah L Krein

    Citation: Implementation Science 2007 2:41

    Content type: Research article

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  30. Implementation fidelity refers to the degree to which an intervention or programme is delivered as intended. Only by understanding and measuring whether an intervention has been implemented with fidelity can r...

    Authors: Christopher Carroll, Malcolm Patterson, Stephen Wood, Andrew Booth, Jo Rick and Shashi Balain

    Citation: Implementation Science 2007 2:40

    Content type: Debate

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  31. A challenge for implementation researchers is to develop principles that could generate testable hypotheses that apply across a range of clinical contexts, thus leading to generalisability of findings. Such pr...

    Authors: Jillian J Francis, Jeremy M Grimshaw, Merrick Zwarenstein, Martin P Eccles, Susan Shiller, Gaston Godin, Marie Johnston, Keith O'Rourke, Justin Presseau and Jacqueline Tetroe

    Citation: Implementation Science 2007 2:39

    Content type: Study protocol

    Published on:

  32. Randomised controlled trials of implementation strategies tell us whether (or not) an intervention results in changes in professional behaviour but little about the causal mechanisms that produce any change. T...

    Authors: Jeremy M Grimshaw, Merrick Zwarenstein, Jacqueline M Tetroe, Gaston Godin, Ian D Graham, Louise Lemyre, Martin P Eccles, Marie Johnston, Jillian J Francis, Jan Hux, Keith O'Rourke, France Légaré and Justin Presseau

    Citation: Implementation Science 2007 2:38

    Content type: Study protocol

    Published on:

  33. There are gaps between what family practitioners do in clinical practice and the evidence-based ideal. The most commonly used strategy to narrow these gaps is the printed educational message (PEM); however, th...

    Authors: Merrick Zwarenstein, Janet E Hux, Diane Kelsall, Michael Paterson, Jeremy Grimshaw, Dave Davis, Andreas Laupacis, Michael Evans, Peter C Austin, Pamela M Slaughter, Susan K Shiller, Ruth Croxford and Karen Tu

    Citation: Implementation Science 2007 2:37

    Content type: Study protocol

    Published on:

  34. Evaluation of low-back pain guidelines using Appraisal of Guidelines Research and Evaluation (AGREE) criteria has shown weaknesses, particularly in stakeholder involvement and applicability of recommendations....

    Authors: Michel Rossignol, Stéphane Poitras, Clermont Dionne, Michel Tousignant, Manon Truchon, Bertrand Arsenault, Pierre Allard, Manon Coté and Alain Neveu

    Citation: Implementation Science 2007 2:36

    Content type: Research article

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  35. Dutch guideline-developing organizations do not focus systematically on differences between men and women when developing guidelines, even though there is increasing evidence that being male or female may have...

    Authors: Debby G Keuken, Joke A Haafkens, Marian J Hellema, Jako S Burgers and Clara J Moerman

    Citation: Implementation Science 2007 2:35

    Content type: Research article

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  36. Although the study of research utilization is not new, there has been increased emphasis on the topic over the recent past. Science push models that are researcher driven and controlled and demand pull models ...

    Authors: Liane R Ginsburg, Steven Lewis, Lisa Zackheim and Ann Casebeer

    Citation: Implementation Science 2007 2:34

    Content type: Research article

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  37. Gaps between research knowledge and practice have been consistently reported. Traditional ways of communicating information have limited impact on practice changes. Strategies to disseminate information need t...

    Authors: Dominique Acolet, Kim Jelphs, Deborah Davidson, Edward Peck, Felicity Clemens, Rosie Houston, Michael Weindling, John Lavis and Diana Elbourne

    Citation: Implementation Science 2007 2:33

    Content type: Study protocol

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  38. In the past 15 years, knowledge translation in healthcare has emerged as a multifaceted and complex agenda. Theoretical and polemical discussions, the development of a science to study and measure the effects ...

    Authors: Mandi S Newton and Shannon Scott-Findlay

    Citation: Implementation Science 2007 2:32

    Content type: Debate

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  39. For people with dementia, patient-centred care should involve timely explanation of the diagnosis and its implications. However, this is not routine. Theoretical models of behaviour change offer a generalisabl...

    Authors: Robbie Foy, Claire Bamford, Jillian J Francis, Marie Johnston, Jan Lecouturier, Martin Eccles, Nick Steen and Jeremy Grimshaw

    Citation: Implementation Science 2007 2:31

    Content type: Research article

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  40. Childhood asthma is common in Cape Town, a province of South Africa, but is underdiagnosed by general practitioners. Medications are often prescribed inappropriately, and care is episodic. The objective of thi...

    Authors: Merrick Zwarenstein, Angeni Bheekie, Carl Lombard, George Swingler, Rodney Ehrlich, Martin Eccles, Michael Sladden, Sandra Pather, Jeremy Grimshaw and Andrew D Oxman

    Citation: Implementation Science 2007 2:30

    Content type: Research article

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  41. Health care practice based on research evidence requires that evidence is synthesised, and that recommendations based on this evidence are implemented. It also requires an intermediate step: translating synthe...

    Authors: Susan Michie, Jessica Berentson-Shaw, Stephen Pilling, Gene Feder, Paul Dieppe, Rosalind Raine, Francoise Cluzeau, Phil Alderson and Simon Ellis

    Citation: Implementation Science 2007 2:29

    Content type: Study protocol

    Published on:

  42. Despite the development of several models of care delivery for patients with chronic illness, consistent improvements in outcomes have not been achieved. These inconsistent results may be less related to the c...

    Authors: Luci K Leykum, Jacqueline Pugh, Valerie Lawrence, Michael Parchman, Polly H Noël, John Cornell and Reuben R McDaniel Jr

    Citation: Implementation Science 2007 2:28

    Content type: Research article

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  43. Biomedical research constantly produces new findings, but these are not routinely incorporated into health care practice. Currently, a range of interventions to promote the uptake of emerging evidence are avai...

    Authors: Martin P Eccles, Marie Johnston, Susan Hrisos, Jill Francis, Jeremy Grimshaw, Nick Steen and Eileen F Kaner

    Citation: Implementation Science 2007 2:27

    Content type: Study protocol

    Published on:

  44. Psychological models can be used to understand and predict behaviour in a wide range of settings. However, they have not been consistently applied to health professional behaviours, and the contribution of dif...

    Authors: Martin P Eccles, Jeremy M Grimshaw, Marie Johnston, Nick Steen, Nigel B Pitts, Ruth Thomas, Elizabeth Glidewell, Graeme Maclennan, Debbie Bonetti and Anne Walker

    Citation: Implementation Science 2007 2:26

    Content type: Research article

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  45. The Accreditation Council on Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) supports chart audit as a method to track competency in Practice-Based Learning and Improvement. We examined whether peer chart audits performed ...

    Authors: Lisa J Staton, Suzanne M Kraemer, Sangnya Patel, Gregg M Talente and Carlos A Estrada

    Citation: Implementation Science 2007 2:24

    Content type: Short report

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