Skip to main content

Table 1 The six feedback modifications selected in our online fractional factorial screening experiment

From: A randomised fractional factorial screening experiment to predict effective features of audit and feedback

Modification description Modification ON vs OFF
A. Effective comparators
Feedback is typically given in the context of a comparator. Select comparators according to their ability to change or reinforce the desired behaviour
ON when showing the top 25% nationally as the comparator
OFF when showing the mean average
B. Multimodal feedback
Present feedback in different ways to help recipients develop a more memorable mental model of the information presented, allow interaction with the feedback in a way that best suits them, and reinforce memory by repetition
ON if the performance result text was accompanied by a graphical display of performance data
OFF when the graphical display was absent
C. Specific actions
Specify desired behaviour to facilitate intentions to perform that behaviour and enhance the likelihood of subsequent action
ON if the feedback suggested specific recommendations for action (i.e. who needs to do what, differently, with or to whom, where and when)
OFF when such recommendations were absent
D. Optional detail
Provide short, actionable messages with optional information available for interested recipients. Feedback credibility can be enhanced if recipients are able to ‘drill down’ to better understand their data
ON if short messages with clickable, expanding links to explanatory detail were included
OFF when these links were absent
E. Patient voice
Explicitly link patient experience to audit standards to highlight the importance of providing high-quality care and hence increase motivation to improve practice
ON when a box including a photograph of a fictional patient was added, with a quotation describing their experience of care related to the associated audit standard
OFF when these were absent
F. Cognitive load
Minimise the effort required to process information by prioritising key messages, reducing the amount of data presented, improving readability, and reducing visual clutter
ON when distracting detail was minimised
OFF if additional general text not directly related to the audit standard and feedback on other audit standards was added